Ramadaan Series {Day 10} – Fasting Ramadaan Whilst Travelling or Sick

For the traveller, we say the one who has travelled 48 miles after leaving the last home of their city they become a traveller.

  • If this traveller finds it difficult to fast it is an obligation not to fast
  • If the fasting could lead to difficulty it is better for him not to fast
  • If it creates a slight difficulty but it’s not too bad then it is better to fast.

For the sick person:

  • If the fasting will harm them then it is an obligation not to fast.
  • If he finds it difficult with no harm then it is better not to fast
  • If they are slightly ill then he has to fast.

For both the traveller and ill person they must make these fasts up.

What Is Prohibited in Du’a

  • Asking for the hastening of the punishment of the aakhirah in the dunya
  • Over exaggerating in du’a
  • Asking for something haraam or breaking of ties
  • Giving up just because a reply hasn’t come
  • Du’a against oneself or one’s children or property.

Saying “Ameen” For A Du’a in Sujood

Saying “ameen” is usually said when the du’a is heard by others such as Surah Faatihah and Qunoot. As for du’a in sujood, then this is a secret du’a so there is no need to say “ameen” and Allah Knows Best.

Haircut Styles

It says in Sharh al-Iqnaa’: Qaza’ includes shaving some places on the sides of the head, or shaving the middle and leaving the sides, as most of the Christians do, or shaving the sides and leaving the middle, as many of the foolish do, or shaving the front and leaving the back.

Imam Ahmad (rh) was asked about shaving the back of the head and he said: This is the action of the Magians, and whoever imitates a people is one of them. Thus, it is known that it is not permissible to leave some parts of the hair longer than others.

‘Abd-Allaah ibn Ghadyaan, ‘Abd al-Razzaaq ‘Afeefi, Ibraaheem ibn Muhammad Aal al-Shaykh. End quote.

This is a general answer and there is a lot of detail.

Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

With regard to shaving part of the head and leaving part, this is of varying degrees.

  1. The worst is shaving the middle of the head and leaving the sides, as the Christian monks do.
  2. After that comes shaving the sides and leaving the middle, as many of the foolish and worthless people do.
  3. After that comes shaving the front of the head and leaving the back.

These three types all come under the heading of qaza’ which was forbidden by the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), but some of them are worse than others.

These seem to refer to shaving parts of the head totally.

A person should be, generally, avoiding these things especially if he wants to be a role model to others. Meaning, to gain higher ranks and call others to good one must be impeccable and avoid even that which is makrooh.

From an academic point of view, classical scholars seem to classify it as makrooh rather than haraam unless they were imitating others in which case it’s extremely dangerous.

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

Qaza’ is makrooh, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) saw a boy, part of whose hair had been shaved and part had been left. He told them not to do that and said: “Shave it all or leave it all.” But if it is done in imitation of the kuffaar it is haraam, because imitating the kuffaar is haraam. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever imitates a people is one of them.” end quote.

Al-Sharh al-Mumti’ (1/167).

Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in al-Majmoo’ (1/347):

Qaza’, which means shaving part of the head, is makrooh because of the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar in al-Saheehayn, which says that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade qaza’. End quote.

Two Rak’ah After Asr

Two rak’ah after Asr: Narrated on the Prophet (saw).

Ibn Hajar [may Allaah have Mercy on him] said it was specific for the Prophet [Peace and Blessings of Allaah be upon him] as the majority have stated.

He also suggested that it was for a specific cause (ذوات الاسباب) and also suggested that it could be out of Qadaa at times for a missed Raatib.

See Fath al-Baaree (2/64)

If this is true, how do you explain the following Hadeeth:

There is no prayer after ‘Asr until the sun has set and there is no prayer after Fajr until the sun has risen.

al-Bukhari 586 & Muslim 827

There is a detailed discussion on the matter with evidences from both sides on the Arabic Multaqa here under the thread titled [ما حكم صلاة ركعتين بعد العصر هل هي مكروهة ام محرمة ام مستحبة ] What is the ruling regarding the two Rak’ah prayer after ‘Asr? Is it Makrooh, Haraam, or Recommended?

For the minority who support the view that one can pray after the ‘Asr prayer their explanation is simple. It is as follows

فهذا الحديث مطلق يقيده حديث علي رضي الله عنه الآتي

The Hadith which is agreed upon by Imaam Al-Bukhaari and Imaam Muslim is unrestricted [Mutlaq] and the Hadith which allows praying after ‘Asr restricts this otherwise unrestricted prohibition.

Shiekh Al-‘albaani, who upheld the minority view, had the following remarks:

وفي هذين الحديثين – أي حديث علي وحديث أنس المتقدمين – دليل على أن ما اشتهر في كتب الفقه من المنع عن الصلاة بعد العصر مطلقاً – ولو كانت الشمس مرتفعة نقية – مخالف لصريح هذين الحديثين ، وحجتهم في ذلك الأحاديث المعروفة في النهي عن الصلاة بعد العصر مطلقاً ؛ غير أن الحديثين المذكورين يقيدان تلك الأحاديث ؛ فاعلمه

And in these two Hadith – namely the Hadith of Ali’ and the Hadith of ‘Anas which have preceded – is evidence that that which has been popularized in the books of Fiqh, namely that one cannot pray after the ‘Asr prayer at all – even if the sun is murtafi’ah [high] – is in opposition to these two explicit Hadith. And their [the authors of the books of Fiqh which forbid all prayer] evidence is those well-known Hadith which are unrestricted and say that one cannot pray after the ‘Asr prayer but these two mentioned Hadith restrict these otherwise unrestricted Hadith [meaning that one can pray after ‘Asr so long as the Sun is murtafi’ah].

[As-Saheehah 1/625]

Ibn Rajab made the following remarks in Fath Al-Baari 3/278:

وممن رخص في الصلاة بعد العصر والشمس مرتفعة: علي بن أبي طالب، والزبير، وتميم الداري، وأبو أيوب، وأبو موسى، وزيد بن خالد الجهني، وابن الزبير، والنعمان بن بشير، وأم سلمة -رضي الله عنهم-.

ومن التابعين: الأسود، ومسروق، وشريح، وعمرو بن ميمون، وعبد الرحمن بن الأسود، وعبيدة، والأحنف بن قيس، وطاوس.

From those who permitted one to pray after the ‘Asr prayer while the sun was murtafi’ah included:

  • Ali bin Abi Taalib (may Allah be pleased with him)
  • Al-Zubayr (may Allah be pleased with him)
  • Tamiim Al-Daari (may Allah be pleased with him)
  • Abu ‘ayyoob (may Allah be pleased with him)
  • Abu Musaa (may Allah be pleased with him)
  • Zaid bin Khaalid (may Allah be pleased with him)
  • Ibn Zubayr (may Allah be pleased with him)
  • Al-Nu’maan bin Bashiir (may Allah be pleased with him)
  • ‘Umm Salamah (may Allah be pleased with her)

Narrated Ali ibn Abu Talib:

The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) prohibited to offer prayer after the afternoon prayer except at the time when the sun is high up in the sky.

[Sunan Abi Dawud Hadith No. 1274]

It should be noted here that Ibn Rajab did not uphold the opinion of the permissibility of praying after ‘Asr, and simply because he mentioned a group of Companions that did does not mean he too supported their view.

Imaam Al-Shawikaani had the following to say:

وقد اختلف أهل العلم في الصلاة بعد العصر وبعد الفجر ، فذهب الجمهور إلى أنها مكروهة وادعى النووي الاتفاق على ذلك ، وتعقبه الحافظ بأنه قد حُكي عن طائفة من السلف الإباحة مطلقا ، وأن أحاديث النهي منسوخة . قال : وبه قال داود وغيره من أهل الظاهر ، وبذلك جزم ابن حزم ([2])

The people of knowledge have differed regarding prayer after ‘Asr and after Fajr. And the majority have inclined toward the opinion that it is Makrooh and Al-Nawawi has claimed an Ijmaa on the matter. But Daawud and Ibn Hazm were of the opinion of permissibility. And permissibility has also been transmitted from a group of the Salaf.

[Nayl al-Awtar 100/3]

So why did Al-Nawawi claim an Ijmaa when the matter is such?

The answer can be found in Al-Majmoo’ 230/9 when Al-Nawawi is discussing another matter when he has the following remarks to make:

فكأنهم لم يعتدوا بخلاف داود ، وقد سبق أن الأصح أنه لا يُعتد بخلافه ، ولا خلاف غيره من أهل الظاهر لأنهم نفوا القياس ، وشرط المجتهد أن يكون عارفا بالقياس

The most correct opinion is that the opposition presented by the Ahl Al-Zaahir is not to be considered because they denied Qiyaas and it is a condition for being Al-Mujtahid that one be knowledgeable of Qiyaas.

Those who oppose praying after ‘Asr even if the sun is murtafi’ah have two explanations for the Hadith which permit it.

القاعدة أنه إذا تعارض حاظر ومُبيح قُـدِّم الحاظر

First, based on the principle that when there is a contradiction between permissibility and being forbidden, then being forbidden is given precedence.

The second explanation which Ibn Hajar supports is that the Messenger of Allaah’s (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) praying was a matter which was specific to the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam). He says:

قال الحافظ ابن حجر : تمسك بهذه الروايات من أجاز التنفل بعد العصر مطلقا ما لم يقصد الصلاة عند غروب الشمس ، وقد تقدم نقل المذاهب في ذلك ، وأجاب عنه من أطلق الكراهة بأن فعله هذا يدل على جواز استدراك ما فات من الرواتب من غير كراهة ، وأما مواظبته صلى الله عليه وسلم على ذلك فهو من خصائصه ، والدليل عليه رواية ذكوان مولى عائشة أنها حدثته أنه صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يصلي بعد العصر وينهى عنها ، ويواصل وينهى عن الوصال . رواه أبو داود ([33]) .

Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar said: Those who have supported all kinds of Nawaafil after ‘Asr have used these Hadith as long as one does not intend praying when the Sun is setting.

Those who oppose this view and consider any prayer after ‘Asr to be Makrooh have answered by saying that his doing is evidence for the permissibility for praying that which one misses from the Rawaatib prayers without it being disliked to do so, but as for his (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) persistence on doing that, then it is from those things which are special to him. And the evidence for this is the Hadith of ذكوان that ‘Aishah used to narrated that he (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) used to pray after ‘Asr while forbidding her and he would do Wisaal [in fasting] but forbid from it.

[Fath Al-Baari 64/2]

فتبين بهذا أنها أرادت يومها المختص بها الذي كان يكون مكثه عندها في بيتها، فكان يتوضأ عندها للعصر ويصلي ركعتين، ثم يخرج للصلاة، وربما كان يدخل بيتها في وقت العصر كذلك.

And from this it becomes clear that she [‘Aishah] intended her specified day when he would stay with her in her house and would perform Wudoo’ for ‘Asr and pray two Rak’ah then go out for prayer and many times he would enter into her house during the time of ‘Asr like that.

فدل هذا: على أن مرادها: انه كان يصلي ركعتين بعد دخول وقت العصر، ولكن كان ذلك قبل صلاة العصر، وكانت تظن أن هذا يرد قول عمر ومن وافقه بالنهي عن الصلاة بعد العصر، وإنما كان مراد عمر وغيره من الصحابة: النهي عن الصلاة بعد صلاة العصر.

And this is evidence to the fact that what she meant was that he would pray two Rak’ah after the time of ‘Asr had come to be but that was before the [obligatory] prayer of ‘Asr and she thought that this refuted the saying of ‘Umar and those who agreed with him about the prohibition of praying after ‘Asr and the meaning of what ‘Umar and others from the Companions was only to mention the prohibition from prayer after the [obligatory] prayer of ‘Asr.

ولاشتباه الأمر في هذا على كثير من الناس كان كثير من الرواة يروي حديث عائشة بالمعنى الذي يفهمه منه، ولا يفرق بين وقت العصر وفعل العصر، فوقع في ذلك اضطراب في الفاظ الروايات

And this matter becomes dubious to many people who narrate the Hadith of ‘Aishah based on the meaning they understand from it and do not differentiate.

Between the time of ‘Asr and the act of praying ‘Asr and because of that confusion occurs in the wording of the narrations.

وقد ظهر بهذا أنه لم يصح عن النبي – صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – أنه صلى ركعتين بعد صلاة العصر، إلا يوم صلاهما في بيت أم سلمة، وكانت عائشة ترويه عنها – أحياناً -، كما في حديث ذكوان عنها، وأحياناً ترسله، كما في حديث أم سلمة عنها.

And from this it becomes apparent that it is not authentically narrated from the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) that he prayed two Rak’ah after the [obligatory] prayer of ‘asr except for one day when he prayed the two Rak’ah in the house of Umm Salamah.

Things Are Not Always Black and White in Some Issues

A scholar of the past was passing by some Mongols and they were drinking alcohol. He didn’t say anything to them! So, his companions asked him about this and he replied that this drinking alcohol is haraam but it is busying them from harming the Muslims!

Things are not clear cut in many things and require people with knowledge and wisdom to talk about these issues and not just anyone who sees Verses of the Qur’an and just interpret it themselves.

Which Hand to Count Tasbih on?

The narration about the Prophet (saw) counting Tasbih on his right hand… [Reported by Abu Dawud]

The extra wording “his right hand” is weak as it was singularly narrated by Muhammad b. Qudāmah and he opposed the other Huffadh (reliable narrators) that narrated this hadith without the extra addition.

Based on this, a person can count his Tasbih on his right and left hand.

– Sh. Bakr Abu Zayd (r)

Doing Istighfar After Sunnah Prayers

Doing istighfar after Sunnah prayers seems to be permissible as some of the people of the past did it as narrated by Ibn Rajab (rh). A scholar of the past said that it’s allowed due to the generality of the narrations that mention doing istighfar after Salaah.

When to Pray the Witr Prayer

Ibn Hazm (rh) said in al-Muhalla, 2/92, 93:

Witr at the end of the night is better, but whoever prays Witr at the beginning of the night, that is fine. It is permissible to pray after Witr but one should not repeat Witr.

Al-Nawawi (rh) said in al-Majmoo, 3/512:

If a person prays Witr, then he wants to offer a naafil prayer and so on at night, that is permissible and is not makrooh, but he should not repeat the Witr.

The Standing and Sujood of Prayer

Shaykh ul Islam (rh) mentions in Fatawaa al-Kubra that the standing and sujood are equal because of the clear Hadith in the Saheeh which mentions, the best Salaah is the one with the longest qiyaam.

A Hadith in the Saheeh, that the closest one is to Allah is in sujood so suplicate much therein. The recital of the Qur’an is better than du’a and dhikr but the sujood position itself is better than the standing position itself so he viewed them both as equal!

As a side point, the human being is prone to becoming bored so change your routines, meaning if you pray Qiyaam, do 2 by 2 and then the Witr. The next time you pray Qiyaam increase and decrease, make different du’as in the Salaah, different du’as in rukooh, sujood and this is all from the Sunnah so a person should vary. A person may become tired or bored of the same thing and leave it!

Two Imams Leading The Tarawih Prayer

A sheikh said:

If there are two imams in one mosque, should they be regarded as separate or is one the deputy of the other?

It seems that the second option is correct, that one of them is the deputy of the other and completes (the prayer) on his behalf. Based on this, if two imams pray in the mosque, then these two imams are to be regarded as if there are one imam, so a person should stay until the second imam finishes, because we know that the second one is completing the prayer of the first one.

End quote.

Majma’ Fataawa Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (14/207).

And Allaah knows best.

Explaining The Meaning of Sins Breaking The Fast

A scholar of the past states:

It is related from some of the people of the past that backbiting, tale carrying and the likes break the fast, and it is mentioned as one opinion in the madhab of Imâm Ahmad (rh). The final word on this issue is that Allâh, the Exalted, commanded people to fast in order to achieve piety (taqwâ), and Allâh’s Messenger – praise and peace of Allâh be upon him – stated:

Whoever does not leave off false speech and acting by it, then Allâh is not in need of him abandoning his food and drink.

So if the fasting person does not achieve piety, he has not achieved what is intended through fasting, and so the reward of [his] fast will decrease in accordance [with how much he has gone against the intended goal, i.e. commensurate with his sins].

Righteous deeds have two intended goals:

  • Gaining reward
  • Avoiding punishment.

If a person fasts while also doing forbidden things, like backbiting, carrying tales between people or consuming what is forbidden and so on, he loses the reward.

Thus, when the imams say [backbiting etc.] does not break the fast, it means that the person who sins is not punished in the way a person who openly breaks his fast would be punished.

And those who said it does break the fast in the sense that the person has not achieved the intended goal behind fasting, or in the sense that he has lost the reward for fasting, then this statement is in agreement with the position of the imams.

One who says it breaks the fast in the sense that the person is to be punished for leaving [the fast], then he is in contradiction to the imams.

What Are The Three Conditions For The Invalidators of Fasting To Apply?

  1. Is ignorant of what breaks the fast
  2. Done unknowingly / forgetfulness
  3. Being forced

If any of these are present then the nullifiers of fasting don’t count.

For example, he ate forgetfully then he’s still fasting.

Forced intercourse doesn’t break the fast.

Breaking A Fast

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) was asked about a man who wanted to have intercourse with his wife during the day in Ramadaan, and he broke his fast with food before having intercourse, then he had intercourse. Does he have to offer expiation or not? What about the one who breaks the fast with no excuse?

He replied: Praise be to Allaah. There are two well-known scholarly views concerning this matter. The first is that it is obligatory. This is the view of the majority, such as Maalik, Ahmad, Abu Haneefah and others. The second view is that it is not obligatory. This is the view of al-Shaafa’i… Then they disputed as to whether it is essential that he have broken a valid fast (in order for the severe expiation to be required). Al-Shaafa’i and others said that that is essential, for example if he eats and then has intercourse, or he starts the day intending not to fast and then has intercourse, or he has intercourse, then offers expiation, then has intercourse again.

He does not have to offer expiation, according to al-Shaafa’i, because he did not have intercourse during a valid fast. But Ahmad and others say that he does have to offer expiation in these and similar cases, because he should have refrained from eating etc during Ramadaan, so this is an invalid fast. This is like invalid ihraam. If a pilgrim who has entered ihraam for Hajj spoils his ihraam, he has to continue refraining from the things that are forbidden during ihraam, like those whose ihraam is still valid.

Similarly, if a person is obliged to fast during Ramadaan, he has to refrain even if his fast is spoiled by eating or having intercourse, or by not having the intention to fast. He should still refrain from doing the things that are forbidden when fasting. But if he does not refrain, he is still subject to the same requirement of expiation as if his fast was still valid. And in either case he has to make up the fast as well.

And Allaah knows best

Praying Ankle To Ankle

What do we say about praying ankle to ankle?

You have two extremes in this issue:

Those that spread their legs far too wide which is far off!

And those whose rows aren’t straight, their feet are so close together and they are far away from the person next to them!

The row should be straight and all those aforementioned things are used to make sure the row is straight. There is no evidence to suggest that scholars outside the last generation said it should literally be ankle to ankle!

Ibn Uthaymeen’s (rh) speech on the joining of the ankles. It’s a view that just at the start of the prayer they can be joined to make the row straight but he elaborates:

As for joining the ankles to the ankles of the others, then no doubt this is reported from the Sahaabah, radhiyallahu ‘anhum, for they would straighten the rows by joining ankles, that is, every one of them would join his ankle with the ankle of his neighbour to ensure being line, and the straightness of the row. So it is not meant as an aim in itself, but rather as a means of achieving another aim, as some of the people of knowledge have mentioned. Therefore, when the rows are completed and the people are standing, it is befitting for every one of them to join his ankle to the ankle of his companion to ensure straightness. It does not mean that he should continue this joining and remain so for the whole salaah.

From the extremism that has occurred with regard to this issue is what is done by some people in that one of them will join his ankle to the ankle of his companion, and he will spread his feet so far apart until there is a gap between his shoulder and the shoulder of his companion, so he will oppose the Sunnah by doing that. But the aim is that the shoulders and ankles should be in line with each other.

What Are The Shuroot (Pre Conditions) of The Prayer?

1) One must be Muslim

2) He must be sane and conscious

3) He must be of the age of maturity

4) He must have wudoo and have taken ghusl if necessary

5) There must be no impurities on his body, clothes or place of prayer

6) He must cover his ‘awrah

7) It must be the correct time for the prayer he is performing

8) His entire body must be facing the Qiblah

9) He must have the intention for the prayer in his heart

What Is Shuroot, Arkan and Waajibaat of The Prayer?

Shuroot means those actions which occur outside the salaah which must remain until the end of the salaah such as removing najaasah or coming out of the state of hadath.

Arkan refers to those actions which are within the prayer such as rukoo or sujood which, if left out, would mean that one must either repeat the whole prayer or make up for that action within the prayer.

Waajibaat are those actions of the prayer that are considered as being obligatory such as the first tashahhud.

Moving The Finger In Prayer

A scholar of the past said in ‘al-Majmu” (3/398):

“And should one move his finger when lifting it to point with it? There are several opinions on this. The correct one – which is the clear opinion of the majority of scholars – is that one should not move his finger, and if he does happen to move it, this is makruh and does not nullify his prayer due to it being a minor movement. The second opinion is that it is haram to move his finger, and his prayer is nullified if he moves it…and this is a weak opinion. The third opinion is that it is mustahabb to move it, and their proof for this is the hadith of Wa’il bin Hujr in which he described the Messenger of Allah as placing his hands in the tashahhud, saying: “Then, he would raise his finger, and I saw him moving it to make supplications.” This was reported by al-Bayhaqi with an authentic chain, and al-Bayhaqi said: “It is possible that what is meant by ‘moving it’ is that he lifted it up to point with it, not that he would move it repeatedly.””

Another scholar of the past said in ‘al-Mughni’ (1/524):

“…One should point with his index finger upon mentioning Allah in the tashahhud due to what we have narrated, and he should not move it.”

A scholar of the past said in ‘Hidayat ar-Raghib li Sharh ‘Umdat at-Talib’ (p. 126):

“…So, he should raise his finger without moving it around in the tashahhud and while supplicating in his prayer…”

A scholar of the past said in ‘al-Muhalla’ (4/151):

“And we prefer that when the one in prayer sits for the tashahhud, he points with his finger and does not move it.”

The narrator that said moving the finger actually contradicted 13 other narrators of the same narration who said don’t move it.

How A Madhab Was Created

When the imams of the past died their students put their rulings into books and followed their rulings.

Many scholars came over time and revised, codified and added to their rulings. They are all a means of following the Sunnah of the Prophet (saw).

For example, Abu Hanifah was in Iraq and studied with the great scholar Hammad and then had two great students, Hassan al Shaybani and Imaam Muhammed. Years later his rulings were codified and used to form the basis of rulings for his madhab.

You will not find a single great scholar of the past except he began by following a madhab; Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Katheer and so on.

Importance of Learning About One Madhab at A Time

This is done to follow basic views at the start and ensure the view we are following have backing from classical scholars, so we aren’t making up our own understanding.

Insha’Allah, as long as you are following classical views you will be fine, but remember that the Haqq is always one.

We can say no one is wrong for following a madhab as a student of ilm insha’Allah . It gives coherence and structure to learning and is easy to follow insha’Allah.

Placement of Hands During Salaah

Imaam Ahmed and others said below the navel. These are giants of the religion! Others said around the waist and others said on the chest.

The correct view, Allah knows best, is anywhere above the navel because nearly all the narrations are weak in the topic except the ones about above the navel as they are slightly stronger.

As for the chest, Imaam Ahmed said this is disliked.