Poem title: Al-Arjoozah al-Me’iyah.
Author: ‘Alee ibn ‘Alee ibn Muhammad ibn Abil-‘Izz al-Hanafee, student of hafidh Ibn Katheer (rh).
Purpose: To highlight the main points of the life of the Prophet (saw) and how we can benefit and implement lessons into our lives.
Benefit of this Poem: The poem is in chronological order of events.
Benefits of learning the Seerah
- It tells us everything about his (saw) life, manners and character.
- It ingrains love in our hearts for the Prophet (saw).
- It increases our emaan when we see how his (saw) relationship was with Allah.
Unique points of the Seerah
- Everything in the life of the Prophet (saw) was recorded. We know everything about him (saw).
- The Prophet (saw) was sent to the whole of mankind.
- He (saw) didn’t spend his entire life with those whom he loved, yet he didn’t have anything bad recorded against him (saw).
- He (saw) was complete; the perfect man.
- He (saw) was the same at all times; he wouldn’t be one way indoors and another outdoors.
- His (saw) Seerah wasn’t only about miracles. Had it been so, we wouldn’t have been able to follow him (saw).
How was the world during the time of the Prophet (saw)?
There were many different Empires
The Romans were the superpower of the world at that time. Their Emperors were living a very luxurious life and their people were living poorly.
Their leaders were almost worshipped.
Side Point: Scholars of the past have said, read about history as there are lessons in it.
- One can benefit his entire life reading about the history of the past.
They were going through the dark ages. It was a dirty place and there was no development. Women were disrespected and despised. Europe was behind the rest of the world.
Known to worship everything; graves, Prophets, animals, dates.
Regarding their shirk, Amr ibn al Hay al Khuzaa’ee brought shirk to the land. Before this, the people were close to the religion of Prophet Ibraheem (as).
Amr ibn al Hay al Khuzaa’ee went on a trip to Syria and saw people were worshipping idols. He was amazed by what they were doing as Syria was known to be the land of the Prophets and scriptures. So, he brought an idol back with him called Hubul. He placed it in the middle of the Ka’bah and told people to come and worship this idol. After this, the shirk spread and they started to introduce new idols.
In India, the soothsayers had a lot of sway in society and there was a caste system. The Brahmans were known as the best caste. After them it was the soldiers, farmers, business men and slaves.
- The lowest caste wasn’t even allowed to touch the highest caste.
Virtues related to the Prophet (saw)
The Prophet (saw) was asked about The Hour (Yawmul Qiyaama). The Prophet (saw) said, what have you prepared? The man replied, I have nothing except I love Allah and His Messenger (saw). So, the Prophet (saw) said, you will be with those whom you love.
- This shows the gentleness of the Prophet (saw) and how he (saw) was always positive.
Anas (ra) commented on this and said, we have never been happier after we heard this narration.
- The reason being, Anas (ra) said, I love the Prophet (saw), Abu Bakr (ra), ‘Umar (ra) and due to my love for them, I hope I will be with them, even though my deeds are not similar to theirs.
He (saw) had a huge responsibility. He (saw) was the first Prophet to be sent to the whole of mankind. This is why it was allowed for him (saw) to have many wives. He (saw) would spend a lot of time with them and from them we learn so much about him (saw).
He (saw) was never asked something except that he (saw) would give it.
- In the Battle of Badr the Sahaabah used the Prophet (saw) as protection. This has been authenticated by Ibn Taymiyyah (rh).
- He (saw) wanted to forgive Abdullah ibn ‘Ubay, the head of the munaafiqoon, when he slandered his (saw) wife A’isha (ra).
- He (saw) never spoke evil, even about food, as A’isha (ra) mentions. If he (saw) didn’t like a particular type of food, he didn’t criticise it and left it.
Why were the Arabs chosen for this message?
- They were known for their intelligence.
- They had a vast comprehensive language.
- They had excellent communication skills.
- They had amazing memories; they would know 1000 words for the word sword.
- They were known for their generosity.
- They were straightforward people.
- Due to all of these qualities it made it easy for them to accept the message.
- When going through the Seerah of the Prophet (saw) you must take benefits. You are not just reading for history or pleasure. You are reading to implement.
Qualities of the Seerah of the Prophet (saw)
- There are more than 1000 Seerah books in the Urdu language alone.
- The Seerah has been recorded in a reliable way.
- Other religions don’t have nowhere close to the amount of detail the Seerah has about their prophets, like Islam does for the Prophet (saw).
- Generally speaking, the Prophet’s (saw) life was easy to follow.
All praise is for Allaah, The Eternal, The Maker;
followed by His salaah upon the chosen one.
The author begins by praising Allah. “Al humd” means perfect praise for the One who is most deserving of it. We praise Him for being Allah.
Then the author sends peace upon the Prophet (saw). The author starts like this because he is seeking blessings in his writing.
- Al Qadeem: One that has none before Him. This is not from the names of Allah.
- Al Baari: The Creator who created when there was nothing; the Originator.
- As Salaah: Praising of the Prophet (saw) by Allah in the company of the highest of Angels.
- Mukhtaari: The chosen one. The Prophet (saw) was chosen by Allah as the khaatabi nabieen.
Here is the Messenger’s biography
in poem form with succinct sections.
Whenever you see this means movement from one topic to another. Some people claim that Dawood (as) was given this.
Linguistically: A way / path. Something good or bad.
Shari’ah: Knowing about the Prophet (saw) from the day he (saw) was born till the day he (saw) died.
His birth was on the tenth of the distinguished month,
Rabee‘ al-Awwal, in the year of the elephant.
The Ulema have said that his (saw) birth was on the 10th of Rabee al-Awwal in the Year of The Elephant. This is approximately 20th April.
- At this time, they didn’t have calendars, so they remembered the year by events.
This was the year when Abrahah tried to destroy the Ka’bah, as the Makkans urinated in a building that Abrahah made that was built to compete with the Ka’bah.
The following incident is mentioned in Surah Feel of the Holy Quran and it happened during the period of the birth-year of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Abraha Al-Ashram was the governor of Yemen on behalf of the king of Ethiopia. He (Abrahah) thought to build a house (like the Ka’bah at Makkah) in Sana (the capital of Yemen) and call the Arabs to perform the pilgrimage there in Sana instead of the Kaaba in Makkah, with the intention of diverting the trade and benefits from Makkah to Yemen. He presented his idea to the king of Ethiopia who agreed to it.
So, the house (church) was built and he named it Al-Qullais; there was no church of its like at that time. Then a man from the Quraish tribe of Makkah came there and was infuriated by it, so he relieved his nature (stools and urine) in it, soiled its walls and went away. When Abrahah Al-Ashram saw that, he could not control his anger and raised an army to invade Makkah and demolish the Ka’bah. He had in that army thirteen elephants and amongst them was an elephant called Mahmud which was the biggest of them. So that army proceeded and none amongst the Arab tribes that faced them (fought against them) but was killed and defeated, till it approached near Makkah.
Then there took place negotiations between Abrahah Al-Ashram and the chief of Makkah (Abdul Muttalib bin Hashim, the grandfather of the Prophet), and it was concluded that Abrahah would restore the camels of Abdul Muttalib which he had taken away, and then he (Abrahah) would decide himself as regards the Ka’bah. Abdul Muttalib ordered the men of Makkah to evacuate the city and go to the top of the mountains along with their wives and children in case some harm should come to them from the invading oppressors.
Then that army moved towards Makkah till they reached valley Muhassir. While the army was marching towards Makkah, in the middle of the valley, suddenly it was overtaken by flocks of birds, flocks after flocks, air-raiding that army with small stones slightly bigger than a lentil seed. There never fell a stone on a soldier except it dissolved his flesh and burst it into pieces.
So, they perished with a total destruction. Abrahah Al-Ashram fled away while his flesh was bursting into pieces till he died on the way (back to Yemen). Such was the victory bestowed by Allah, (the All-Majestic, All-Powerful) to the people of Makkah and such was the protection provided by Him for His House (Ka’bah in Makkah).
Benefits of story:
Sometimes we don’t know what is good for us. We don’t know the divine wisdom behind something, but we still submit to it.
Just as sheep have a Lord (owner) so does this house (Ka’bah). Abdul Muttalib took the little means he had and left the rest to Allah. Allah destroyed Abrahah.
The Prophet’s (saw) lineage has three parts
- Muhammad bin Abdullah
- Abdul Muttalib (Known as Sheba)
- Bin Haashim (Ammar)
- Bin Abdul Manaf (Mugheera)
- Ibn Qusay (Zayd)
- Ibn Qilaab
- Ibn Murra
- Ibn Ka’ab
- Ibn Lu’ay
- Ibn Ghaalib
- Ibn Fihr (was called Quraish)
- Ibn Maalik
- Ibn an Nathar
- Ibn Kinaana
- Ibn Khuzaymah
- Ibn Mudrika
- Ibn Ilyas
- Ibn Mudar
- Ibn Nadhar
- Ibn Mu’ad
- Ibn Adnan (Father of the Arabs)
- Some inconsistencies and differences. Goes from Adnan to Ibrahim (as).
- Highly doubted. Goes from Ibrahim (as) to Aadam (as).
However, the common view is that it was the twelfth,
on a Monday at the break of dawn,
The author mentions the most famous view of the birth of the Prophet (saw) as being the 12th on a Monday. There is no disagreement on the day. However, with regards to the date, there is no clear-cut evidence for this.
- This shows that it is not something important for us to know.
This point also refutes those that celebrate the mawlid. If you don’t know the specific date, then how can you celebrate it.
Ibn Kathir (rh) mentions that on the night the Prophet (saw) was born, the Rabies and Priests noticed it was a special night by a special star in the sky and they said it is the night of Ahmad. Some of them were awaiting him (saw).
When he (saw) was in his mother’s womb there was a light coming from his (saw) mother’s stomach that was glowing to Shaam. This was mentioned by his (saw) mother.
- Hadith about the Prophet (saw) fasting on Mondays
- The Prophet (saw) was born and died on this day
- He (saw) reached Medina
- The fath of Mecca occurred
- Abu Bakr (ra) died
Narrations about dying on a Friday and being saved from the Fire are weak.
- If you follow that view, then we say it’s a possibility because we don’t know if it’s authentic.
Corresponding to the twentieth of April.
Prior to that, his father passed away.
Before the Prophet (saw) was born, his father died (there is a difference of opinion in this). Some say he (saw) was born and then his father died. The strongest view appears to be that his father died before he (saw) was born. This is a complete type of orphanage.
- This shows that an orphan can reach the highest of levels.
- Ibn Hajar (rh)
- Imam Shaafi’ee (rh)
- Imam Bukhari (rh)
We also learn from this that the best way a person helps his family is by doing good deeds.
- Sa’id Ibn Musayyib was asked by his son, why are you doing good deeds? He said, so Allah will take care of you when I’m gone.
Why did Khadir uncover the treasure for the orphans? Allah tells us that their father was righteous.
Two years later he was weaned
and brought back safe and sound by his wet nurse,
When he (saw) was born, his mother Amina suckled him (saw) for a few days and then Thuwaybah suckled him (saw). Thuwaybah was the free slave of Abu Lahab.
- Suckling is the right of the child.
Some narrations in Sahih Bukhari mention that Abu Lahab was given a little bit of water to drink in Jahannum because his freed slave suckled the Prophet (saw) in this dunya.
After this, Halima took the Prophet (saw). As was custom of the Arabs at that time, they would give their babies to the people of the desert. This would keep the child away from the city life and diseases. It would toughen the child up and they would learn the Arabic language in its purest form.
Haleemah, to his mother. She then returned
with him to her own family as she had desired.
Halima realised that when she had the Prophet (saw) she had a lot of barakah in her life. Her animals that didn’t give milk would now give milk and her general blessings increased. When the time came to give the Prophet (saw) back, she asked for an increase in time due to the blessings he (saw) would be giving bringing.
Two months later his belly was cleaved open,
though some say it was when he was four years old.
By this stage, the Prophet (saw) had reached approximately two years and a few months in age. During this time, Jibreel (as) came to the Prophet (saw) and wrestled with him (saw) and then he opened his (saw) chest, took out a clot / vein from his (saw) heart and said, this is the share of Shaytaan in you.
The children saw the Prophet (saw) and told Halima. They said Muhammad has died. The colour of his (saw) face had changed. They could actually see where the chest had been stitched up. Due to this, Halima became frightened and returned the Prophet (saw) back to his mother.
Some narrations mention Jibreel (as) washed his (saw) heart with Zamzam water.
Ibn Hajar (rh): The Prophet’s (saw) heart was taken out three times in total.
- When he (saw) was young. Two views; two months later and at four years old
- Before revelation
- Before al isra wal mi’raaj
What we learn:
- Everyone has evil in them. If the Prophet (saw) had his share of Shaytaan in him (saw) then how about us?
- We have to work on our hearts. Jibreel (as) did it for the Prophet (saw).
Sufyan al Thawri (rh) was sitting with his hand on his chin, thinking about how to clean his heart. One of his students brought him water to do wudu for Qiyaam Ul Layl. From Isha to Fajr he still had his hand on his chin thinking about how to fix his heart.
At six years and one month, while returning,
his mother passed away at al-Abwaa’.
The author mentions the death of the Prophet’s (saw) mother. She wanted to show him (saw) to her relatives in Medina. On the way back, she fell ill and died. Now he (saw) has become a complete orphan and he (saw) hasn’t even hit puberty yet.
- This shows the importance of maintaining the ties of kinship, even if it means going out of your way at times. The closer a person is to you the more right they have to have the ties of kinship maintained.
Sahih Muslim: The Prophet (saw) visited the grave of his mother and he (saw) cried. All those around him cried too. He (saw) said, I asked for permission to pray for her forgiveness and I was refused. I asked if I could visit her grave and I was given permission.
- The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Visit the graves, for they remind you of the Hereafter.”
(Narrated by Muslim, 976)
Another narration mentions the Prophet (saw) stopped at a grave and said, for a day like this we should prepare ourselves. There is a khilaaf on the authenticity of this narration, but the meaning is correct.
What we learn:
We must obey Allah every second of our lives. So much so, one of the Salaf would make his food easy to swallow to not waste time chewing.
The topic of the Prophet’s (saw) mother is not something a person should talk about too much.
And his paternal grandfather, ‘Abdul-Muttalib,
passed away while he was eight, no lie.
At eight years old, his (saw) grandfather died, whom he (saw) loved a lot. His (saw) grandfather would have a special carpet in the Haram, where his own children would sit, in the Ka’bah. He allowed the Prophet (saw) to also sit there. When the people would question Abdul Muttalib, he would say, leave him for this boy has a great future.
Then his paternal uncle, Aboo Taalib, took on
his guardianship, and later to ash-Shaam he travelled.
Before Abdul Muttalib died, he persuaded his (saw) paternal uncle (father’s blood brother), Abu Taalib to take over. At that point, he had the Prophet (saw) for approximately two years. He (saw) was with his grandfather from the age of six to eight years old.
Abu Taalib took over to look after the Prophet (saw). He was generally a poor person and had lots of children and he loved the Prophet (saw) a lot. When he would travel, he would take the Prophet (saw) with him and he would take him to Shaam for business.
That was while he was twelve years old
and the well-known incident with Baheeraa took place.
They travelled to Shaam and a monk by the name of Baheera saw the Prophet (saw) and he told Abu Taalib that this man is a Prophet because we saw the trees leaning down and the clouds giving him shade.
Baheera told the Prophet’s (saw) uncle to take him away from here because if the Jews and Romans find out, they will kill him.
The above is a weak narration because there are many strange things in it. For example, it mentions Abu Bakr (ra) but the Prophet (saw) hadn’t become a Prophet yet. There are many contradictions.
Before this event occurred the Prophet (saw) became a shepherd. Later in his life he (saw) mentions, in an authentic narration in Bukhari, that there was no Prophet before him except that they were a shepherd.
Benefits of being a shepherd:
- Ulema mention that shepherds have soft hearts
- Dealing with sheep teaches patience as they are very disobedient
- It teaches you to deal with different kinds of personalities
- Sheep move very slowly so you can’t get angry at them otherwise they won’t eat.
The best of mankind again travelled to ash-Shaam
at the age of twenty-five – remember it –
The Prophet (saw) went to Shaam for business for Khadijah (ra) and he (saw) was 25 years old at the time. There are many different reports. Khadijah (ra) sent Nafisah to check on the Prophet (saw) to see how he (saw) was in business.
as a trader for our mother, Khadeejah,
and he returned that year after profitable trade, happy.
The Prophet (saw) returned and he was very successful in his trade/business.
We learn that the Prophet (saw) was known to be trustworthy. Is being trustworthy enough to recommend someone for marriage today? No.
‘Umar bin Khataab (ra) needed someone for a position and someone was recommended to him. He asked, do you know this person? The man said yes. So, ‘Umar (ra) said, have you travelled with him? The man said no. Have you lived with him? The man said no. Have you dealt with him in money? The man said no. ‘Umar (ra) said, you don’t know him.
In that year was his marriage to her,
and he later consummated his marriage with her.
As Khadija (ra) was very impressed with him (saw), she (ra) proposed to him (saw). She sent Nafisah with the proposal. There is a large difference of opinion in this area.
- We learn that when you find someone righteous you will be successful. When you are doing something sincerely for Allah, Allah will make it easy for you.
The correct opinion is that the Prophet (saw) was 25 and Khadijah (ra) was 28.
- We learn that there can be an age gap between husband and wife.
A woman can work if it complies with the Islamic conditions. The (default position) is that it’s better for a woman to stay in the home.
A man works because there was not a single Prophet except that he was a shepherd (Sahih Bukhari).
There are different narrations as to whether he (saw) or she (ra) proposed.
Khadijah (ra) sent Nafisah to inquire about the Prophet (saw).
In some narrations, it says that he (saw) could afford to get married. This means he (saw) was able to provide for his wife with food, shelter and clothing.
The marriage contract was done and then he (saw) consummated the marriage with Khadijah (ra) and didn’t marry anyone else whilst married to her (ra).
All his children were from her except Ibraaheem.
The first to earn that distinction was al-Qaasim.
All of the Prophet’s (saw) children were from Khadijah (ra) except Ibraheem. The first child was Qaasim. He passed away in the Meccan period. The Prophet (saw) still kept the kunya Abul Qaasim.
- Ibraheem was from another woman; Maariya al-Qibtiyya.
All of his (saw) children were born before Prophethood except for Ibraheem. He died when he was 18 months.
He (saw) had seven children in total; four girls and three boys.
- Umm Kulthoom
Then came Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Faatimah,
and Umm Kulthoom, who was the last of the girls;
The author mentions the names of his (saw) daughters.
Zaynab passed away a couple of years after the Prophet (saw) made Hijra.
Ruqayyah (ra) married Uthman (ra) and passed away literally when the victory of Badr came. The two were so close that Usama mentioned the victory of Badr came and they had just finished levelling the ground of Ruqayyah’s (ra) grave.
Faatimah (ra) was the greatest of his daughters. Some Ulema follow the opinion that she was the greatest woman that ever lived.
Once the Prophet (saw) whispered in her ear and she cried. When the Prophet (saw) whispered in her ear a second time she laughed. Later, she told A’isha (ra) that he (saw) told her that he would die soon and the second time he (saw) said I will be the leader of the women in Jannah, so I became happy.
The Ulema have said that Faatimah (ra) wasn’t known for her knowledge, yet she was one of the greatest. A’isha (ra) said, she would walk like the Prophet (saw).
Umm Kulthoom (ra) was the second wife of Uthmaan (ra) and the Prophet (saw) cried when burying her.
- There is a dispute whether Faatimah (ra) or Umm Kulthoom (ra) was the youngest.
and At-Taahir, At-Tayyib, ‘Abdullaah;
but some say each name belonged to a separate beautiful child.
The author mentions Taahir, Tayyib and ‘Abdullaah. Some Scholars say these were other names of the Prophet (saw). The correct opinion is that Taahir and Tayyib were nicknames for his (saw) son, Abdullaah.
All of them tasted death during his lifetime,
except Faatimah who died half-a-year after him.
Some Ulema say that Faatimah (ra) was below the age of 30.
We learn that the closer you are to Allah the more you are tested.
We also learn the beautiful patience of the Prophet (saw). You never hear him (saw) complaining.
Tears came out of the Prophet’s (saw) eyes, but he (saw) never said anything that was displeasing to Allah.
- When going through trials and tribulations we ensure we are always obedient to Allah.
Jarir (ra) mentions that there was never a time when the Prophet (saw) was not smiling. Jarir (ra) was a Muslim in the last 10 years of the Prophet’s (saw) life. This is the time when the Prophet (saw) went through many hardships.
At thirty-five he participated
in rebuilding the House of Allaah after its dilapidation.
After 35 years of his (saw) life the Ka’bah had been damaged due to a flood. The Prophet (saw) was present for the reconstruction of the Ka’bah. He (saw) helped by carrying and transporting bricks. The Quraish agreed that they would only use halal money for it.
This shows that if non-Muslims can have this much respect and love for Allah what about Muslims in everything we do? Do we show the same respect for Allah?
We learn that a person should humble themselves by helping others out.
They appointed him to arbitrate and accepted his solution
for putting the Black Stone into place.
The Quraish had an issue with who was going to put the sacred Black Stone back into its place when the Ka’bah was re-built. They started to argue and were close to shedding each other’s blood over it.
Some of them suggested, before going to war over it, to get someone to mediate between them. They said that the next person who goes past the Ka’bah will mediate and it happened to be the Prophet (saw).
The Prophet (saw) said, one person from each tribe holds one corner of the cloth and he (saw) will place it inside the Ka’bah himself.
- The author says that they were pleased with his (saw) judgement.
Imam Tirmidhi (rh) mentions a Hadith about the Black Stone being from Jannah and that it used to be white, but it turned black due to the sins of man.
What we learn:
- If you are trustworthy, people will give you great responsibility.
- The importance of seeking council from others.
- The importance of asking the wise.
- The importance of wisdom.
He gives wisdom to whom He wills, and whoever has been given wisdom has certainly been given much good. And none will remember except those of understanding.
Ibn Qayyim (rh): Wisdom is saying the right thing at the right time in the right place in the right way. The Prophet (saw) had this in abundance.
At the age of forty he was sent as a Messenger;
on a Monday with certainty – so convey it –
At this stage of the Prophet’s (saw) life, he spent a lot of time meditating in Mount Hira. He (saw) was upset with the idolatry he (saw) was seeing, and he (saw) knew it wasn’t right.
- There is no mention that the Prophet (saw) ever worshipped idols, even before he (saw) became a Prophet.
He (saw) would spend his days pondering in Mount Hira. He (saw) would go back to his wife, get his provisions and go back to Mount Hira again.
The angel Jibreel (as) came to the Prophet (saw) and asked him to read. The Prophet (saw) replied, “I do not know how to read.”
The Prophet (saw) added, “The angel caught me (forcefully) and pressed me so hard that I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read and I replied, ‘I do not know how to read.’
Thereupon he caught me again and pressed me a second time till I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read but again I replied, ‘I do not know how to read (or what shall I read)?’ Thereupon he caught me for the third time and pressed me, and then released me and said, ‘Read in the name of your Lord, who has created (all that exists) has created man from a clot. Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous.”
The first five Verses of Surah ‘Alaq were revealed and he (saw) became a Prophet.
What we learn:
- Contemplating and pondering is a big part of our religion.
Then do they not reflect upon the Qur’an, or are there locks upon [their] hearts?
Indeed, in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day are signs for those of understanding.
- We should ponder over the creation of Allah, His magnificence and over ourselves with our deficiencies.
Someone who listens to music, has arrogance, pride, looks down on people, can’t take advice, gets angry quickly and can’t follow instructions. A person needs to sit, ponder and reflect on all his sins and weaknesses and ask Allah to remove them.
- The more you do this the better it is for you.
The Ulema mention why Jibreel (as) held the Prophet (saw) so tightly. Some say it’s in line with the Qur’an:
Indeed, We will cast upon you a heavy word.
By squeezing him (saw) so tightly it is like saying you are going to carry a huge burden.
- Carrying knowledge is a huge burden.
- The Ulema say that the Qur’an went from Al-lawh Al-mahfooz to the lowest sky and then it came down to the Prophet (saw) via Jibreel (as). This all took place on a Monday thus adding to the virtues of a Monday.
- We learn of the patience of Khadijah (ra), because during this time the Prophet (saw) had six children and yet she (ra) was still letting him go and providing for him (saw). This shows that a great woman has patience and supports her husband.
- Shows the important of seeking knowledge.
After this event occurred with Jibreel (as), the Prophet (saw) returned to Khadijah (ra) and his heart was beating severely, and he (saw) said, “Cover me” and she did. He (saw) was terrified and said himself, “I feared for myself”.
The Ulema say there are 12 views why he (saw) feared for himself. Some of them being that someone may have done witchcraft on him, some evil happened and others. So, Khadijah (ra) calmed him (saw) down.
What we learn:
- Khadijah (ra) was very intelligent. She didn’t bother the Prophet (saw) in this time by asking unnecessary questions. It is better to leave the person alone until they have calmed down. The Prophet (saw) asked to be covered and she covered him and then after that she started to talk to him (saw).
- During this time of hardship, he (saw) could have gone to anyone but he (saw) turned to his wife Khadija (ra).
Khadijah (ra) swore an oath by Allah and said, By Allah, Allah will never disgrace you, for by Allah, you keep good relations with your kith and kin, speak the truth, help the poor and the destitute, entertain your guests generously and assist those who are stricken with calamities.
Imam Bukhari (rh) said Khadijah (ra) knew this because Allah will never let someone like this down. The Prophet (saw) had good character, maintained ties of kinship, spoke the truth, helped the poor.
Khadijah (ra) took the Prophet (saw) to her cousin Waraqah bin Nawfil. This man was blind, old and a practicing Christian who had left shirk. He was a believer in Allah. The Prophet (saw) informed him of everything that he saw. Waraqa replied, this is Naamoos (Keeper of Secrets).
Waraqah continued, saying that he wishes he would be alive the day the Prophet’s (saw) people throw him out. The Prophet (saw) was shocked by this. Waraqah said, no man has come with what you have come with except that his own people have been hostile to him and they have thrown him out.
What we learn:
- Importance of being up front with people, especially if it’s something serious or related to a position of power. You will be held accountable. Waraqah didn’t hide this information.
- Shows how sincere someone can be. Importance of ikhlaas. Waraqah was old and said if I am alive that day, I will help you with a mighty help. Many Ulema follow the view that Waraqah was the first Muslim.
Hadith in Haakim: Don’t swear at Waraqah for I saw him with one or two gardens in Jannah.
- All of this shows that we go back to the Ulema as much as possible. Khadijah (ra) took the Prophet (saw) to someone who was knowledgeable in the Scriptures.
- The default position of giving da’wah is that there will be trials and tribulations. This is what Waraqah told the Prophet (saw).
Some Ulema mention that the Prophet (saw) didn’t hear from Jibreel (as) for a long period of time after this event and that he (saw) wanted to commit suicide. These Hadith are weak and are not correct.
There were different types of Revelation:
- Some were Angels inspiring him (saw)
- Some would be Jibreel (as) in the form of a man
- Sometimes it would be a truthful dream
- Sometimes it would be a loud ringing bell sound
- Sometimes it would be Jibreel (as) in his true form. This occurred twice in the Sahih. One form of Jibreel (as) is with 600 wings.
The only time when there was no Angel was during Al-Isra wal Mi’raaj, when the five times daily salaah was prescribed.
We learn that Waraqah was very old and that there is no age limit when giving daw’ah.
during Ramadaan or Rabee’ al-Awwal,
and Soorah “Iqra’” was the first of the revelation.
Evidence points to Surah Iqra being revealed in Ramadaan.
Then wudoo’ and salaah he was taught
by Jibreel, as two complete units of prayer.
Then wudu and salaah was revealed to the Prophet (saw). All the salaah the Prophet (saw) used to pray, up until now, was two rak’ah. Some say it was two rak’ah in the morning and two rak’ah in the evening. Many Ulema say that the night prayer was also legislated at this time and that it was Waajib at this stage.
What we learn:
The importance of the night prayer. A student of knowledge must pray the night prayer. The one affiliated with seeking knowledge not performing the night prayer was unheard of.
- As much as possible, when doing a good deed, keep it private and secret. One can share it with others, such as one’s teacher, as the Prophet (saw) would say to Abdul Amr (ra), “Don’t be like so and so who left the night prayer after having started it.” The person the Prophet (saw) is referring to obviously told him (saw) that he prayed the night prayer.
A person must have a teacher when seeking knowledge because without one there will be mistakes.
The Prophet (saw) learned and taught Khadijah (ra). This shows the importance of learning from those who have studied.
- Self-studying leads to arrogance and mistakes. Their mistakes will be more than that which is correct.
Then, after the passing of twenty full days,
enormous, terrifying stars pelted the Jinn.
Twenty days after Revelation the Jinn were pelted with lots of shooting stars. Some Ulema say that it wasn’t the actual star but rocks and stones from underneath that star.
Stars are used in three instances in Islam:
- Signs for a traveller to guide them.
- A protection against the Jinn.
- Used for beatification.
The reason for this was because initially the Jinn could get close to the skies and listen.
- Iblis was confused as to why this was happening to the Jinns. He told the smaller Jinn to go about the Earth and find out what has changed. They saw the Prophet (saw) praying salaah and they knew this was the reason. It was the coming of this man, Prophet Muhammad (saw).
- After the Revelation (entire Qur’an) had finished, the Jinn were allowed to listen again.
Then, in the fourth year, he called
openly to Islaam as commanded.
In the 4th year of his (saw) Prophethood, the public da’wah started. Up until now the Prophet (saw) was calling in secret.
At this stage, all the Muslims were hiding and there was no ibaadah in public.
Ulema give reasons for secrecy at this stage:
- To make it easy on the Prophet (saw)
This was all new to him (saw) as well and he needed to get used to it himself (saw).
- Personal tarbiyah
This would mean personal time with students. During the Meccan phase, he (saw) gave one-on-one time to Abu Bakr (ra) and others and then during the Medina phase these same people become leaders. ‘Umar (ra) would call certain people to gathering and leave others out.
- A small group is easier to give da’wah to
The default position of the religion is that it is done in public (unless there is harm to you) and not in private.
After this stage, more people started accepting Islam.
Khilaaf on who accepted Islam first. Some Ulema mention:
- Waraqa bin Nawfil
- Abu Bakr (ra)
- Khadijah (ra)
- Ali (ra)
- Zayd bin Haaritha (ra)
Islam was growing now, and it was difficult for it to remain a secret.
Some classify the first Muslim in different ways. For example:
- Abu Bakr (ra) being the first man
- Ali (ra) being the first teenager
- Khadijah (ra) being the first woman
- Waraqa being the first from another religion
- Zayd (ra) being the first slave.
Abu Bakr (ra) invited others to Islam. He (ra) was doing a lot of the da’wah at the beginning. Out of the ten promised Jannah, Abu Bakr (ra) gave da’wah to seven of them.
The family of Yaasir became Muslim (family who got tortured) through da’wah of Abu Bakr (ra).
What we learn:
- Having righteous company. Uthmaan (ra) accepted Islam because he saw his company accept Islam and he liked these people.
- The da’wah of a person with high status. People look up to someone who is successful in the dunya. Abu Bakr (ra) had a very high level with the Quraish because he was successful in dunya things. Others were scared to lose their reputation in society but not Abu Bakr (ra).
- We try our best to not mix our da’wah with dunya life, in certain situations. A Muslim should strive in the dunya and become successful and keep their da’wah work separate. For example, some people might say, I would rather teach Islamic knowledge all the time and charge money for it.
Da’wah is given to different people within society; males, females, slaves and so on.
The start of Surah Muddaththir is when the da’wah began.
Arise and warn
The Ulema say that the Prophet (saw) started his public da’wah by gathering the people and saying, if I warned you of an enemy approaching would you believe me? His (saw) family was there and others too. Abu Lahab said, Woe to you. Is this why you called us?
- Some Ulema say this is when some parts of Surah Masad were revealed.
During this incident, the people said that they trust and believed in him (saw) and never experienced any lie coming from him (saw).
- This is the importance of telling the truth.
He (saw) then said, I am a warner to you of a day with severe torment. This is when the hostility started from the Quraish.
Important point: If you are calling people to good then expect to be harmed. This is part of da’wah. The bigger the scale of the da’wah, the bigger the harm. Some of the Prophets were cut in half.
Ibn Hazzam (rh) has a beautiful statement relating to this:
If you do good to people, then await their harm and evil.
- You will find that the one you do good to will have a bad word to say about you.
In the 4th year the da’wah became public but the harm they faced was a blessing in disguise, because news spread of a man claiming to be a Prophet, so everyone was interested.
Abu Dhar al Ghifaari (ra) found out and tried to find the Prophet (saw). Due to this he was beaten. For one month, Abu Dhar (ra) survived on Zamzam water and ajwa dates. He eventually met the Prophet (saw) and then accepted Islam. This was the fruits of da’wah becoming public.
When he (ra) accepted Islam, he wanted to go out and announce it to everyone. The Prophet (saw) said, don’t do this as we are currently weak.
What we learn:
When you are weak be careful with your decisions and how you do things.
Abu Dhar al Ghifaari (ra) went back to his tribe and they accepted Islam along with his mother and brother. When the Prophet (saw) migrated to Medina, the neighbouring land became Muslim too.
What we learn:
- Plant the seeds for something, let those seeds grow and become firm. Only then will you see the seeds sprout out. Slowly work on yourself and then you will become unstoppable.
- We need to have plans about giving da’wah and the legacy we are going to leave behind.
Abu Dhar (ra) in Sahih Muslim: The Prophet (saw) said to him later in his life, that you are weak, and this isn’t for you; leadership.
- Leadership is a huge responsibility and on the Last Day it will be regret.
What we learn:
- A person might be good at something but not another.
When the da’wah was spread openly, and people were openly announcing their Tawheed, there was a difference between those who had a reputation and those who didn’t.
- When you have a lot to lose you have to think very carefully.
The Arabs were scared of accepting Islam as it went against their entire history. Some accepted but the big and powerful didn’t. It was at this time when the Quraish started to torture the slaves who had become Muslim. Yet, when they would go to the Prophet (saw) he wouldn’t take action. Rather, he (saw) would say, patience and glad tidings.
- The Prophet (saw) said, I have been told to overlook and forgive.
What we learn:
When giving da’wah to people you will be harmed and so you struggle against yourself when dealing with this harm. If you are finding it too difficult to bear the harm of others, then this shows your weakness in your ibaadah and your relationship with Allah. This links back to the point of the night prayer.
- Look at how the Prophet (saw) was dealing with it. When the Muslims were being tortured, he (saw) wouldn’t go and fight as he wasn’t ordered to do so and therefore told them to be patient.
You must also be forbearing; you must have a wide chest and take a lot from the people.
Ways the Quraysh harmed the Prophet (saw)
- They removed honourable titles given to him (saw).
For example, as saadiq, al ‘ameen. They used to call him (saw) by these names, but later they stopped and started calling him (saw) mudamam (blameworthy). By using these names people create an image of that person in their heads.
- Don’t worry about the slanders of the enemies of Islam. They want to put out the light of Allah and Allah refuses to put that light out. Allah will complete His light even if the disbelievers hate it.
Indeed, it is We who sent down the Qur’an and indeed, We will be its guardian.
When they called him (saw) mudamam, he (saw) would say, who is this mudamam? I am Muhammad. This shows the Prophet’s (saw) incredible positivity.
Side point: Titles don’t mean anything. Leave this to Allah. He raises and lowers whom He wants. Titles and labels all lead to arrogance.
- They tainted his (saw) image.
They called him a madman and sorcerer. When pilgrims would come to Hajj from all over the world, the Quraysh would warn them about Muhammad (saw). Even Khalid bin Waleed’s father said he is a man who splits people between families.
Why did they go through all this trouble?
If there are a group of people together on the same wave length, it becomes very difficult to stop them.
- They tried turning his (saw) family against him.
They even went to Abu Taalib and gave him another boy and said, give us your nephew and you can take this boy. Abu Taalib refused.
- We learn that the wisdom of Allah can never be comprehended.
Allah kept Abu Taalib a disbeliever to protect the Prophet (saw). Allah gave him a choice to become a Muslim, even on his deathbed.
- The Quraysh made a pact not to marry or trade with Banu Haashim, the Prophet’s (saw) family.
The reason for this was because if someone is physically being hurt, they can handle it. However, when someone’s family is involved it becomes very difficult.
- They boycotted the Muslims.
There was nothing to eat or drink.
- They harmed the Prophet (saw) physically.
- Abu Jahl stamped on his (saw) neck.
- Once when he (saw) was praying, they put the carcass of a dead camel on his back.
- ‘Uqba strangled the Prophet (saw).
The Prophet (saw) was beaten till he bled. Jibreel (as) came and asked what had happened. The Prophet (saw) didn’t say, don’t worry I will complain to Allah. Rather, the Prophet (saw) told him. Then Jibreel (as) said, shall I show you a sign? Then he told the Prophet (saw) to tell the tree to come to him.
- We learn that sometimes a person needs to tell someone if they have a problem. It also shows that sometimes people need reassurances.
- Abu Lahab’s two sons were married to two of the Prophet’s (saw) daughters.
When the Prophet (saw) called to Islam openly, Abu Lahab told his two sons to divorce the Prophet’s (saw) daughters. The consummation hadn’t yet taken place. The two sons divorced them. One of the sons did it normally. The other started to curse the Prophet (saw) and physically and verbally insult him (saw). So, the Prophet (saw) made du’a against this son, that Allah uses one of His dogs to deal with him. This son was eaten by a lion.
The son who divorced his daughter normally, later embraced Islam.
- They would request impossible things from him (saw).
They said, if you are telling the truth then turn Saffa into gold and bring the dead back to life. They even asked him (saw) to split the Moon and Allah allowed him (saw) to do so. After this they said, this is nothing but magic.
- We learn that you can’t please everyone, so don’t sell your religion.
Muawwiyah (ra) said that anyone can be pleased except for an envier. Enviers have evil goals and can never be pleased. We do what we can and for the masses we can make some compromises in the religion.
- A very knowledgeable person is needed to ask these questions (related to compromises). For example, can a husband or wife undertake plastic surgery if they have a deformity, which results in no pleasure for the other.
You must never play around with your Aqeedah. One must know the limits of their religion.
- They tried to make him (saw) compromise his religion.
They said you worship our lord for a year, and we will worship yours for a year. Some Ulema mention that this is when Surah Al-Kafirun was revealed. This is linked to the previous point of making compromises.
- They tried to put doubts in the religion.
They said a man called Ibn al Hadrami claimed he taught the Prophet (saw) what he (saw) knew.
- They would send a person to debate with the Prophet (saw).
This person would compete with the Qur’an and say, who tells better stories, me or the Prophet (saw).
- When the Prophet (saw) spoke about the religion, they changed the subject.
We learn that you don’t have to make it obvious that you are giving da’wah.
- They would spread doubts about the methodology of the Prophet (saw).
They would say, why is he doing it like this or like that.
- They would try to cause division between him (saw) and the poorer followers.
- They tried to confuse the people by saying that he (saw) will bewitch you.
Due to this false rumour, the people put cotton in their ears.
- They would physically beat the Companions.
This was to stop the da’wah from continuing.
- Abu Bakr (ra) was beaten so badly that they couldn’t tell his nose from the rest of his face. When he (ra) became unconscious and woke up he asked about the Prophet (saw) and refused to eat and drink until he found out about him (saw).
- Zubair’s uncle would tie him up and use smoke on him.
- Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas’ (ra) mother refused to eat.
- Sa’id bin Zayd (ra), the brother-in-law of ‘Umar (ra) said that ‘Umar (ra) used to tie him to a pole and tell him to leave Islam (Bukhari). This was when ‘Umar (ra) wasn’t a Muslim.
Four women along with twelve
men among the Companions all migrated
The Prophet (saw) witnessed his Companions going through hardship, so he (saw) told them about a just King in Habashah (Ethiopia). This took place in the 4th or 5th year of giving daw’ah.
This was the first migration (hijra) in Islam. From these people were famous Companions; Ruqayah (ra) and her husband Uthmaan (ra).
The mushrikoon found out about this migration and didn’t like it. Due to this they tortured the Muslims such as Bilal (ra) and Summayah (ra). Due to the torture Summayah (ra) received, she was died.
to the lands of Habashah in the fifth year.
The same year, they returned, but went back without blame.
Habashah is modern day Ethiopia. They made migration there and returned back in the same year because they heard a rumour that all of Mecca embraced Islam. When they returned, they realised that this wasn’t the case and so they went back to Habashah.
- This occurred because of the satanic verses and everyone prostrated because of it.
They were eighty-three men
accompanied by a group completing their total number;
Two delegates were sent to the King; ‘Amr ibn al-‘As and Abdullah ibn Rabee’ to get the Muslims kicked out of Habashah. The King refused to give the Muslims up because they were sincere in their belief. These Muslims stayed there even after the Hijra was done to Medina.
and they were eighteen women. Later on,
in the sixth year, Hamzah – al-Asad – accepted Islaam.
Hamza (ra) accepted Islam in the 6th year AH. He (ra) was known for having a very strong personality. A few days after this ‘Umar (ra) accepted Islam. This gave the Muslims a sense of honour.
- These two men were the strongest from the Quraysh.
A very important lesson:
‘Umar (ra) was the last to embrace Islam out of the ten promised Jannah, yet his rank is number two out of the entire Ummah of the Prophet (saw).
- This shows that a person can enter Islam late, be sinful and repent late and still become one of the best. A person should never give up hope. ‘Umar (ra) was a human like us.
Nine years after his Messengership
came the death of Aboo Taalib, his guardian;
In the 9th year the boycott started. This meant that no one was to marry from Muslim women, not allowed to trade with them and the disbelievers cut them off in every way possible. They were going to make the Muslims suffer.
At this time Abu Taalib died. Even though the author says the 9th year, Ibn Hajr (rh) says this happened in the 10th year. The boycott lasted approximately three years.
followed by Khadeejah who passed away
after three days had elapsed.
After this, Khadijah (ra), his (saw) beloved wife, died. Some say there was a gap of three days between the death of Khadeejah (ra) and Abu Taalib.
Abu Taalib didn’t become Muslim. Some Shi’a books say that he was resurrected.
The Ulema say the wisdom of Allah as to why Abu Taalib didn’t become Muslim was that the Prophet (saw) would have lost his protection and honour among the people.
The Prophet (saw) encouraged Abu Taalib to say the Shahaadah on his deathbed, but he refused as he didn’t want to leave the religion of his forefathers (Sahih Muslim).
- This shows the importance of righteous company. Your company will have an effect on you, whether it is positive or negative.
This doesn’t mean we boycott people or stay away from them. Sometimes we might benefit others while harming ourselves. You help others as much as possible, but you look after yourself first.
Abu Taalib will have the least punishment in the Hellfire, though he will think it’s the worst (Bukhari and Muslim).
Some historians named this the year of sadness ( ).
The Prophet (saw) visited sick non-Muslims and tried for 21 years to give da’wah to his uncle, until his soul was taken.
- This shows the importance of having patience when giving da’wah.
The death of Khadijah (ra) affected the Prophet (saw) very much. When Khadijah’s (ra) sister Haala would enter, the Prophet (saw) would break down and cry.
- He (saw) would slaughter a sheep and give part of it to her (ra) friends.
- He (saw) would tell A’isha (ra) about her.
- He (saw) would say, don’t speak badly about her as she gave me all my children.
What we learn:
When you are on the path of da’wah you will be tested. This is why Imam Ahmad (rh) said that when he went through the entire Qur’an, he found that Allah mentioned patience 90 times. There are different forms of patience.
Some Ulema say that patience ( ) is when a calamity strikes, at that moment you show patience. Some say it is like a sour drink; you take it down with a smile on your face. Others say not to make du’a for patience because it is like you are asking for a calamity to occur. If no calamity has befallen you, then you don’t need to ask for patience. If something happens then you turn to Allah.
After fifty and a quarter years, Islaam was embraced
by the Jinn of Naseebeen, who then departed – let it be known.
After the two years of trials past, the Prophet (saw) thought to try Taa’if.
- The people here were not very receptive.
As the Prophet (saw) was reciting Qur’an, some Jinn of Naseebeen, between Syria and Turkey, heard his (saw) recitation and accepted Islam.
- This shows that the Prophet (saw) was sent to man and Jinn.
The Prophet (saw) presented himself to the people of Taa’if. The way of the Prophet (saw) was to make things happen; being proactive rather than reactive and to think forward.
- The Prophet (saw) didn’t wait until after being boycotted to go to Taa’if.
Ibn Taymiyyah (rh): We are now applying the Sunnah of the Prophet (saw) in our times.
The people of Taa’if stoned him (saw) and made him bleed. Allah sent Jibreel (as) to give the Prophet (saw) a choice; to crush the entire town or leave it. The Prophet (saw) didn’t take revenge.
- Imam Nawawi (rh) calls him (saw) the Prophet of mercy.
The Prophet (saw) said, maybe they will become Muslim. Taa’if today is Muslim.
- Always be merciful to the people and overlook their faults.
After this event took place, an Angel consoled the Prophet (saw). Once in a while we need to be consoled.
Thereafter, he married Sawdah
in Ramadaan; followed by
The Prophet (saw) married Sawda (ra) in Ramadaan. Sawda (ra) was married to a Companion named Sakraan (ra) and they both migrated to Habashah. On the way back her husband died and so the Prophet (saw) married her.
his marriage to the daughter of as-Siddeeq in Shawwaal.
At the age of fifty-one
After marrying Sawda (ra) the Prophet (saw) married A’isha (ra), the daughter of Abu Bakr (ra) in Shawwaal. She was his (saw) only wife who was a virgin. She was from the most beloved to him (saw) besides Khadijah (ra). She was six years old.
- A’isha (ra) was the most knowledgeable of his (saw) wives
- He (saw) died in A’isha’s (ra) house and lap
- 20 Verses in Surah Noor were revealed to prove A’isha’s (ra) innocence.
The Prophet (saw) was 50 years old at the time and ten years into Prophethood.
He (saw) didn’t consummate the marriage until three years after marrying A’isha (ra).
When he (saw) was 51 years old he (saw) went to al Isra wal Mi’raaj.
- Ibn Jawzi (rh): He (saw) was 51 years and 9 months.
Salaah was the only thing he (saw) had to ascend for. Everything else came down by Jibreel (as).
he was taken by night, and the salawaat were obligated;
five with the reward of fifty, as authentically preserved.
The Prophet (saw) was made to ascend.
Ibn Hajr (rh): Before the Prophet (saw) had the night journey his chest was opened again and washed with Zamzam water and filled with emaan and wisdom.
Due to him (saw) taking a monumental and important journey, his (saw) emaan needed to be very high.
- Anyone involved in daw’ah needs a high level of emaan.
- Zamzam water has a lot of baraqah and it is used to make du’a when drinking it.
He (saw) went to the Buraaq. Each stride from the Buraaq was as far as the eye could see. It went from Mecca to musjid Al-Aqsa. He (saw) tied the Buraaq and lead the other Prophets in salaah. Jibreel (as) offered him (saw) wine and milk. The Prophet (saw) took milk and Jibreel (as) said that this is the fitra (natural disposition of man).
They reached the first sky of this world and Jibreel (as) requested permission to enter and they asked, who are you. Jibreel (as) said, I am Jibreel. They asked, who is with you? Jibreel (as) said Muhammad (saw). They asked, has he been sent? Jibreel (as) said, yes. Then they would make du’a for the Prophet (saw).
This shows the etiquettes of entering someone’s home.
- You say your name clearly and remove doubt from the person. Jibreel (as) requested permission to enter.
In the first sky, he (saw) met Aadam (as) and he said, welcome as a Prophet and a son. However, most of the other Prophets said, welcome as a brother. When he (saw) met Ibrahim (as) he said, welcome son.
- This is because he (saw) is his son from the lineage of Ismael (as).
To give people their rights. If they have a lofty status then treat them as they should be treated by welcoming them, praising them and making du’a for them.
- In the second sky, he (saw) met Eesa (as) and Yahya (as)
- In the third sky, he (saw) met Yusuf (as)
- In the fourth sky, he (saw) met Idrees (as)
- In the fifth sky, he (saw) met Haroon (as)
- In the sixth sky, he (saw) met Musa (as)
- In the seventh sky, he (saw) met Ibrahim (as)
Then he (saw) went above this to Bait-ul-Ma’mur, which is in the seventh heaven above the Ka’bah of this world. Each day 70,000 Angels enter and never come out.
At this stage, even Jibreel (as) doesn’t go further. When the Prophet (saw) goes to the Lote Tree ( ), Jibreel (as) stays behind. This is when the Prophet (saw) met Allah.
Allah decreed 50 prayers and the Prophet (saw) accepted this.
- Even though we are only praying five times a day, we are getting the reward of 50.
He (saw) went past Ibrahim (as), who did nothing and then passed Musa (as) and he (saw) told him what happened. He (as) said, go back and get the reduction. Your people won’t be able to handle it
- This shows the concern of Musa (as) had for the people, even though he is in the next life (Barzakh).
This shows the importance of consulting with people, in anything you decide to do.
If you make a decision that will affect the people, you can’t just decide on your own.
Musa (as) said, I was with the children of Israel and they were stronger than you in sight, body and intellect and they would struggle with 50 prayers.
Musa (as) told the Prophet (saw) to keep getting a reduction, until it was reduced to five prayers.
This shows that a person must seek advice from someone who has knowledge and experience in that particular topic/field.
- Even though the Prophet (saw) is the best of all human beings, he (saw) still got advice.
It shows that you need to do things on a small scale first. For example, you might not be able to read five Juz of the Qur’an in one day, so read less. Allah cut the prayers from 50 to 5.
It shows the humbleness of the Prophet (saw) by taking Musa’s (as) advice and not saying, I am more knowledgeable than you.
The first bay‘ah was with twelve
of the people from Taybah, as has been mentioned.
Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “Every other Prophet was sent only to his people, whereas I have been sent to all mankind.”
Before this bay’ah (pledge/oath), others had accepted Islam. One of these was At-Tufayl Ibn Amr Ad-Dawsi. Many people don’t know who this person is.
- This shows that a person can be unknown and still leave a great legacy. We may not know who he is, but Allah knows who he is. He gave da’wah to Abu Huraira (ra) and due to this, Abu Huraira (ra) accepted Islam.
Many people accepted Islam by listening to the Qur’an. A problem we have in our times is that people quote Verses of the Qur’an without thinking and others quote Verses that require an explanation.
- When quoting from the Qur’an, it is not allowed to be done in a rhythmic tone. This is not the way of the Scholars. If you are not reciting the Qur’an, then you are quoting it.
The Prophet (saw) never recited the Qur’an in a melodious tone.
Before the first bay’ah, the Prophet (saw) called to Islam for ten years and not many people accepted.
- This shows that it takes time for da’wah to be accepted. It doesn’t happen over-night.
- This is also linked with our families; don’t give up and have patience.
If you are working day and night calling people to Islam, for the sake of Allah, it doesn’t matter if they accept or not, as your first intention is for the sake of Allah and your reward will be with Him.
- Nuh (as) is an excellent example; he had no followers.
In the 11th year of the da’wah, 12 people accepted Islam. They made a pledge that they wouldn’t commit shirk, do zina, kill children and a number of other things.
At the age of fifty-two came
seventy in the Hajj season – and this is confirmed –
Some Ulema say in the following year the Prophet (saw) reached the age of 52. The 12 who accepted Islam were from Ahlil Taybah, (Medina).
- Some Ulema say that there is no evidence for the name Medina Munawara
In the 12th year of the da’wah, 70 people came for Hajj.
- Just by making a few statements, spending a small amount of time giving da’wah and a little bit of good speech, can lead to a great amount of good being done, as long as you are sincere.
The Prophet (saw) sent Musa bin ‘Umayr (ra) to give da’wah to Chiefs in Medina and teach others there. Musa (ra) was known to be smart and had memorised a lot of the Qur’an.
The importance of delegation. You can’t do every good deed by yourself. You do what you can and let others also do good deeds. The Prophet (saw) couldn’t do it himself so he (saw) sent Musa (ra) to do it for him.
- You can’t do goodness to everyone. Teach students who then teach others. You work on everything and make sure all the logistics are in place by planning and preparing. For example, if you are setting up a lecture, make sure the venue is good, the mics are working and so on.
from Taybah. They pledged allegiance, and he later left
Makkah on a Monday in the month Safar.
The author mentions the Hijra.
A few events took place
The Bu’ath ( ) wars between the Khazraj and Aus took place. All the tribal leaders (elders) of Aus and Khazraj were killed. Their youngsters took their path.
Why is this point important?
The younger generation are more willing to follow compared to the older generation.
They came from Medina and pledged allegiance. They said they would protect the Prophet (saw) in Medina.
- This shows the importance of safety.
After hearing that the Prophet (saw) would be protected, only then they went to Medina.
In the 13th year of the da’wah, they started getting ready for hijra:
- The Prophet (saw) told his Companions to go slowly so the people of Mecca would not be alerted as to where they were going. This is putting the means in place.
- It’s ideal to travel with a Companion. It’s makrooh, according to some Scholars, not to travel with someone unless there is a need.
- The fact that the Prophet (saw) chose Abu Bakr (ra) to be his Companion shows Abu Bakr’s (ra) status. Some Ulema mention that he (saw) was preparing him (ra) to be the next leader.
- The Prophet (saw) put Ali (ra) in his (saw) bed as a cover. This shows the importance of taking the means.
- He (saw) did everything with perfection; planning and preparing. If you want to leave a legacy behind this is very important.
- The Prophet (saw) visited Abu Bakr (ra) before migrating and continued to do this daily, so as to not arouse suspicion.
- The day when he (saw) wanted to go with Abu Bakr (ra) he came at an unusual time of day. A’isha (ra) and Asma (ra) knew something wasn’t right.
- When the Prophet (saw) entered Abu Bakr’s (ra) house, he (saw) asked him (ra) to take his daughters out. This shows the importance of an amaanah. Abu Bakr (ra) said that they are okay; meaning that they are trustworthy. This shows the importance of telling children to keep secrets with their loved ones, elders and so on. Divulging secrets is a sign of a hypocrite.
- Abu Bakr (ra) said “in the morning yaa Rasulullah?” The Prophet (saw) said yes. Abu Bakr (ra) began to cry out of happiness. A’isha (ra) said that she never knew anyone could cry out of happiness before this.
- Abu Bakr (ra) prepared two animals and the Prophet (saw) said he would pay him for them. The Prophet (saw) did this because he (saw) wanted a share in the reward.
When spending on your teacher, money shouldn’t be an issue/obstacle.
- They hired Abdullah ibn Urayqit as a guide; a non-Muslim. He took them to where they needed to go and did what he needed to do. The Quraysh put 100 camels on the Prophet’s (saw) head, and he still didn’t tell anyone. We learn that not all non-Muslims are alike; the same way not all Muslims are alike. There might be a trustworthy and untrustworthy Muslim.
The Prophet (saw) did the following on a Monday:
- Left for the fath of Mecca ( )
- Entered Medina
- Was born and passed away
- Became a Prophet
- Fasting on Monday is more authentic than fasting on Thursday.
A line of poetry:
If it’s said to you to be gentle, respond back and say being gentle has its moments.
A big part of the religion is being gentle. However, there are parts where you can’t be gentle. Some Ulema say that when a person is always gentle, even when a time calls for being strict, then this is jahal (). There is no good in forbearance and patience if it’s not accompanied by strictness.
- The default position of the Prophet (saw) in Mecca was that he (saw) was calm. However, there are examples when he (saw) wasn’t.
When he (saw) was doing (circulating the Ka’bah), after going around the Ka’bah once, they called him a poet. The second time around they called him a fortune teller. The third time around they called him a (madman).
Now, the Prophet (saw) stopped and said, Oh the people of Quraysh, by Him whose Hand my soul is in, verily I have come to you with a great slaughter. After this they stopped calling him (saw) names and calmed down. Then they started to call him (saw) Ya Muhammad, Ya Abul Qaasim. They said we didn’t mean what we said.
When he (saw) saw a man wearing a gold ring, he took it off him and threw it.
- Doing this wasn’t being rude. Rather, this is a direct form of da’wah. This is using wisdom rather than being kind all the time. This is with voluntary relationships.
For example, you know a relative that doesn’t pray, so you may have to be harsh and say that if a person leaves salaah intentionally, they have left Islam.
During the Meccan period, the Prophet (saw) made compromises.
- We learn that the religion is not black and white or all or nothing.
The Prophet (saw) gave da’wah in places where there was shirk akbar and prostitutes, as the Quraysh were known for this.
- Things aren’t always straight forward, and we do the best we can.
A modern example:
A Sheikh was invited to give a lecture at a university. Women were sitting at the front and men at the back. Here, if he stops giving the lecture then these non-practicing people won’t ever get this opportunity again. He went forward with the lecture and people repented after it.
The Prophet (saw), during this period when he (saw) was giving da’wah to the Quraysh, would recite the Qur’an. This was his (saw) da’wah. The Quraysh would cover their ears as they didn’t want to listen to it.
- We start our da’wah with the Qur’an; Allah and Tawheed first. Not with things that are Sunnah. This is the root of da’wah. A person may not have accepted Islam but may have accepted what you have mentioned to them.
Thus, the one contented arrived in Taybah, for certain,
having reached the age of fifty-three
The Prophet (saw) arrived in Medina (Taybah) on Monday. This day has some significance. He (saw) was pleased that he was in Medina.
on a Monday. He remained there
for ten full years as we shall recount.
The Prophet (saw) spent ten years in Medina.
Why is it then that we have some narrations that differ on how long he (saw) spent in Medina? Some Ulema say due to their own understanding. The correct view is that the Prophet (saw) spent 13 years in Mecca and 10 years in Medina.
In the first year, salaah of a resident was made complete,
this was after he prayed Jumu‘ah – listen to my words.
Now that the Prophet (saw) was in a new land, he (saw) established salaah there. The people of Medina were already praying before this, but now he (saw) firmly established it.
- They used to pray two rak’ah in the morning and two rak’ah in the evening. When the Prophet (saw) reached Medina the two rak’ah became four rak’ah.
This was also the first time the Prophet (saw) himself prayed Jumu’ah. However, Jumu’ah was already established in Medina because the Prophet (saw) sent a Sahaabi to establish it.
- The Prophet (saw) couldn’t pray Jumu’ah in Mecca due to the persecution and lack of a big crowd.
He then constructed a masjid at Qubaa’,
as well as the masjid in the noble city, al-Madeenah.
Then, the Prophet (saw) constructed a musjid in Qubaa (60km from Medina) and a musjid in Medina.
- This shows that when you enter a new land establish the salaah and build a musjid.
For this reason, we must respect our elders in this country. When they came to this land there were no places of worship and they established the mosques.
Hadith of the Prophet (saw) about praying in Musjid Quba:
Whoever does wudu in his hotel/home and prays two rak’ah in this musjid, he receives the reward of Ummrah.
- If he does wudu in the musjid then he doesn’t get the reward.
The Musjid in Medina belonged to two orphans, Suhail and Sahl, and the Prophet (saw) purchased it and removed some graves that were there. He (saw) helped with the building work.
- This shows that no matter how great a person is, you help the people out. Salaah in that musjid is multiplied by 1000 times.
This is for the salaah only and no other actions and it must be in the musjid itself. If you pray in the courtyard then you don’t get the reward, unless the musjid is full.
Then, around it, he built his dwellings.
Later this year arrived
Then, the Prophet (saw) built a house for his wife Sawdah (ra) and shortly after that one for A’isha (ra). He (saw) did this for the rest of his wives before marrying them.
The Prophet (saw) first arrived in Medina on his mount and all the Ansaar wanted to stay with him (saw). Due to this, he (saw) let his mount go and said, verily the mount is ordered by Allah. It stopped at the house of Abu Ayoob al-Ansaari.
If you can’t make it for something, then you give a reason.
The reason why the Prophet (saw) said, “Verily the mount is ordered by Allah” is so others don’t get whisperings of Satan ( ).
less than half of those who had travelled
to the lands of Habashah when they migrated.
Those that couldn’t make the migration from Mecca to Medina were allowed to go to Abyssinia to a King called Najaashi.
- The Prophet (saw) performed salaatul gha’ib ( ) for King Najaashi, a funeral prayer in absence. He (saw) prayed this prayer in Medina as there were no Muslims in Abyssinia when the King died.
This can’t be done for just anyone. The Ulema say that it must be someone who has done a lot for Islam.
- China did salaatul gha’ib ( ) for Ibn Taymiyyah (rh).
- Saudi Arabia prayed salaatul gha’ib () for Sheikh Abul Hasan Nadawi.
From those who migrated to Abyssinia, less than half returned to Medina. The rest returned after; thirty-three men and eight women.
In the same year, the noblest of all elite established ties of brotherhood
between the Muhaajireen and Ansaar.
The ties were established in the house of Anas ibn Maalik (ra).
The Prophet (saw) knew that the people of Mecca left a lot behind so he (saw) made a bond between the (from Mecca) and the (from Medina). They even inherited between each other.
- The are better because they made a lot of sacrifices.
- The have a great status.
From the ten promised Jannah, we have Sa’ad ibn Ar-Rabi’ (ra) and Abdul Rahmaan ibn ‘Awf (ra).
Sa’ad ibn Ar-Rabi’ (ra) had two wives and lots of money. He legitimately offered one of his spouses and half of his wealth to Abdul Rahmaan ibn ‘Awf (ra).
- This shows an extremely clean heart.
It is not for a believing man or a believing woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decided a matter, that they should [thereafter] have any choice about their affair. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger has certainly strayed into clear error.
Abdul Rahmaan ibn ‘Awf (ra) politely refused by thanking him and asked to be shown where the market place was. He worked and earnt enough money. He said to Sa’ad ibn Ar-Rabi’ (ra), may Allah bless you and your wealth.
- Abdul Rahmaan ibn ‘Awf (ra) was a business man in Mecca and made money for himself.
Abu Darda (ra) and Salmaan al-Faarisi (ra) were two of the most famous Sahaabah.
Abu Juhaafa related that the Prophet (saw) made bonds between these two people. Salmaan (ra) visited Abu Darda (ra) and found that his wife, Umm Darda, was dressed in shabby clothes. So, Salmaan (ra) asked her why she was in that state. She responded, your brother Abu Darda (ra) is not interested in the luxuries of this world.
Abu Darda (ra) came home and prepared a meal for Salmaan (ra). Salmaan (ra) said to Abu Darda (ra), join me in this meal. Abu Darda (ra) said, I’m fasting.
- He was known for this and being a man of ibaadah.
Salmaan (ra) said, I’m not going to eat until you eat, and he made him break his fast and they both ate together.
Then, a part of the night had passed. Abu Darda (ra) got up to pray the night prayer. Salmaan (ra) told him to go back to bed. After this Abu Darda (ra) got up a second time. Salmaan (ra) told him to go back to bed. Finally, in the last hours of the night Salmaan (ra) told him, this is the time and they both offered the night prayer.
After their prayer Salmaan (ra) said to Abu Darda (ra), Your Lord has a right on you, your soul and your family have a right on you, so give everyone their due right.
Abu Darda (ra) went to the Prophet (saw) and told him the story of what happened. The Prophet (saw) said, Salmaan has spoken the truth.
How do we implement this in our time?
We create a timetable and think about everything we need to do.
We learn that we need a trustworthy and close friend who can advise us and keep secrets.
He then consummated marriage with the daughter of his best Companion,
and legislated the athaan, so follow his example.
The Prophet (saw) consummated his marriage with A’isha (ra).
This shows that the Prophet (saw) had a very close best friend. However, he (saw) never called Abu Bakr (ra) his best friend, as to not exaggerate a person. If the Prophet (saw) didn’t do this with Abu Bakr (ra), then we don’t do this.
During the time of the Prophet (saw) women were a lot more mature.
At this time the athaan was legislated and it would be a general call to the prayer.
Hadith of Abdullah ibn Zayd: The Prophet (saw) wondered how to call the people to prayer. He (saw) looked into a bell but disliked this because the Christians did this.
The Sahaabi who narrated this Hadith said that in his dream he saw a man wearing two garments. I said, oh slave of Allah, will you sell that bell? The man said, what will you do with it? The Sahaabi said, we will call the people to prayer with it.
The man said, shall I not tell you something better than that. The Sahaabi said yes and heard the athaan being recited.
The Sahaabi went to the Prophet (saw) in the morning and told him (saw) what he saw in his dream. The Prophet (saw) said, this is a true dream insha’Allah.
The Prophet (saw) said, tell Bilal so he can give the call as his voice is more beautiful than yours.
When Bilal started giving the athaan, ‘Umar (ra) came out of his house and said, by the one who sent you with the truth, I saw what he saw (the same dream). The Prophet (saw) said Alhamdulillah.
This shows the importance of someone’s foundations being firm. The Sahaabah’s foundations were firm for 13 years with the Prophet (saw); being close to him (saw), cleaning their hearts, learning about Heaven and Hell and now they are building masaajids.
The Ulema say that manners come before seeking knowledge. This is related to your character; are you truthful, do you backbite, are you jealous of others, do you have hatred for others and so on.
- First clean your heart and then move on to other things.
Ibn Hajar (rh): The heart is like a dirty bin; full of dirt and rubbish from jaahiliyah.
- One needs to look at the diseases of the heart, write them down and work on them one at a time.
The battle of al-Abwaa’ took place afterwards, in Safar.
Subsequently, in the second year, combat spread
The first military exhibition occurred in the month of Safar.
The Prophet (saw) wanted to ambush some caravans in the area of al-Abwaa’. At this time the Muslims had become strong.
After this, there was a temporary peace treaty between the Muslims and the people of Medina.
In the second year after Hijra the war began properly, and it became more common as the Muslims started to increase in size and strength.
The Scholars used the word “ghazwa” when the Prophet (saw) took part in it. They used to call the Seerah Maghaazi of the Prophet (saw).
- They said, we would study the Maghaazi (Seerah) like we would study a Surah of the Qur’an.
There is a khilaaf as to how many expeditions the Prophet (saw) took part in himself (saw).
- Ibn Hajar (rh): He (saw) took part in 19 battles.
to Buwaat and then Badr. The obligation
of redirecting the Qiblah came in the middle of Rajab
Three different types of battles occurred at Badr (amongst other incidents):
- The first was a minor skirmish.
- The second was the main, and famous, battle.
- The third was when they agreed peace and to meet after ‘Uhud.
Around this time, the direction of the Qiblah was changed.
- A man prayed with the Prophet (saw) and then went to Quba. The man found that they were still facing Baytul Maqdis. The man told them, I just prayed with the Prophet (saw) and we were facing Mecca. After hearing this, they also faced Mecca.
following Thil-‘Ushayr, o my brothers.
Fasting for a month was obligated in Sha‘baan,
At this time, the Prophet (saw) made peace with the tribe of Bani Mudlaj and fasting of Ramadan was made obligatory.
and the major clash which was at Badr
happened during fasting, on the seventeenth of the month.
The battle of Badr happened in the second year after Hijra.
There were 1000 Quraysh against 310 lightly armed Muslims.
- The numbers vary in different narrations.
The Angels descended to help the Muslims.
[Remember] when you said to the believers, “Is it not sufficient for you that your Lord should reinforce you with three thousand angels sent down?
70 of the Quraysh were killed and 70 were imprisoned. The Angels helped the Muslims become victorious. As fasting was obligatory, the Sahaabah were fasting during the battle.
The Battle of Badr
The night before the battle, the Prophet (saw) mentioned who was to be killed, where and when. This was knowledge of the unseen that Allah gave to him (saw) so he (saw) could let the people know.
When the Prophet (saw) gathered his army, he (saw) made three groups:
- Mus’ab ibn Ubay held the primary white flag.
- On the right side, Ali (ra) for the Muhajiroon.
- On the left side, Sa’ad for the Ansaar.
Both Ali (ra) and Sa’ad (ra) were young.
In this night, the Prophet (saw) made du’a to Allah. He said, Allah, don’t allow them to destroy us as there will be no one to worship you on earth if we are destroyed. The Prophet (saw) continued to make du’a till dawn and woke the Sahaabah up for Fajr.
- Most Ulema say that if you want to know about the story of Badr then read the tafseer of Surah Anfaal.
There was a light drizzle when the Prophet (saw) woke the Sahaabah up.
[Remember] when He overwhelmed you with drowsiness [giving] security from Him and sent down upon you from the sky, rain by which to purify you and remove from you the evil [suggestions] of Satan and to make steadfast your hearts and plant firmly thereby your feet.
- The rain was physically cleansing and refreshing.
- The rain was spiritually cleansing.
- The rain made their feet firm on the battlefield as the sand would have been too hot (Musnad of Imam Ahmad (rh)). This helped the Muslims to relax. This drizzle was specifically for them as there was none on the side of the Quraysh and they didn’t sleep well that night.
Ibn Mas’ud (ra): I had never seen anyone begging as much as the Prophet (saw) did on the night of Badr.
On the day of Badr, the Prophet (saw) saw a man galloping towards them on his horse. The Quraysh had sent their most experienced scout, Ubayr ibn Wahab ibn Jumahee, to see the Muslim’s numbers.
On the opposite side, they were getting ready for the duel before the battle. Abu Jahal was making du’a to Allah saying, whichever side has brought more evil, cut the ties and brought the strangest beliefs, make them lose today.
The Prophet (saw) mentioned that the enemy is fighting, even though they don’t want to and amongst them being Al-Abbas bin ‘Abdul Muttalib (the Prophet’s (saw) uncle) and Abu Bukhtari bin Hishaam.
- We learn that not all enemies and foes are the same.
The Prophet (saw) chose Ubaydah bin Haarith for the duel. He was the carer of Abdul Muttalib, Hamza and Ali (ra). The Quraysh chose Utbah, his son and his brother. They shouted, who will it be from the Muslims? Both Hamza and Ali (ra) killed their opponents swiftly.
Utbah sliced Ubaydah’s leg off and was about to finish him off, but Hamza and Ali (ra) came and saved him. However, Ubaydah died a few days later due to his wound.
At this time, the Prophet (saw) once again started making du’a and raised his hands completely to the skies and his (saw) cloak fell off. He (saw) was oblivious to this because he was engrossed in his du’a. Abu Bakr (ra) picked the cloak up and wrapped it around him (saw) and said, enough ya Rasulullah. Your Lord will take care of you. This happened during the battle on the battlefield. When he (saw) lowered his hands, Wahi was revealed to him (saw).
When he (saw) had finished, his face turned white and pointed saying, good news oh Abu Bakr, this is Jibreel on his horse.
- Some mention that this is when the Prophet (saw) picked up a handful of dust and blew it and that this affected the Quraysh.
Majority of the Ulema say that there is a khilaaf on the number of battles the Prophet (saw) was involved in. Many say that he (saw) didn’t fight in all of them but in the battle of Badr he did.
- Ibn Hajr (rh): He (saw) would fight and make du’a.
Ali (ra) said that the Prophet (saw) was the bravest on that day. He also mentioned that he saw the Prophet (saw) in his tent saying, . After this the Prophet (saw) would return back to the battlefield.
During the battle, a Sahaabi was chasing after a mushrik. The Sahaabi heard a whipping sound and when he looked back, the mushrik’s nose had been removed (Sahih Muslim).
- Some Ulema say that the Sahaabah started the action and the Angels finished it.
This Sahaabi told the Prophet (saw) what had happened. The Prophet (saw) said, you have told the truth, and this is the help of Allah that came from the third sky.
Abbas bin Abdul-Muttalib, who was a strong man, was captured by a small Sahaabi. The Prophet (saw) asked the Sahaabi, how did you capture Abbas? Abbas replied, he didn’t capture me and the man who did isn’t here. Abbas described this man as being the most handsome with a black and white mount. The Prophet (saw) said that this was the Angel Jibreel (as).
The Prophet (saw) said that all Prophets have a disciple and mine is Zubayr ibn al-Awam.
- Some Ulema mention that some Angels came looking like Zubayr. Zubayr was wearing a yellow turban and the Angels came down the same way.
Jibreel (as) asked the Prophet (saw), what do you think of the Sahaabah of Badr? He (saw) responded, we think they are the best of us. Jibreel (as) also responded that the Angels who partook in the battle are also the best of us.
Why didn’t Allah just send one Angel to help?
- The Ulema say that you must put effort in for Jannah. Allah will look at your effort more than anything else. The Prophet (saw) put effort in making du’a and so Allah gave him Angels to fight alongside him on the battlefield.
- The Ulema mention that you must put the means in place. Even the Prophet (saw) and Jibreel (as) put the effort in. When Maryam was pregnant, she was very hungry and was about to go into labour. Allah told her to shake the tree. Allah could have given it to her, but He said put the means in place.
And shake toward you the trunk of the palm tree; it will drop upon you ripe, fresh dates.
On the day of Badr, Abu Jahal was humiliated.
Abdul Rahman ibn ‘Awf (ra) wanted strong men with him and said that when I look to my right and left, I am disappointed to see two youngsters. The two youngsters were both Ansaari and had never seen Abu Jahal. One of them poked ibn ‘Awf and said, oh uncle, have you seen Abu Jahal? I heard he mocked the Prophet (saw) so I swore an oath that if I see Abu Jahal, my shadow will not leave his shadow until one of us falls.
The other Ansaari also poked ibn ‘Awf and asked the same thing. Ibn ‘Awf (ra) said that after this he felt comforted as the two youngsters had a lot of energy and spirit.
Abu Jahal was surrounded by his men under a tree and ibn ‘Awf (ra) said to the two youngsters, there is your companion; Abu Jahal. When they both heard this, they darted through Abu Jahal’s army. One of the youngsters was Mu’adth ibn Amaar al-Jumuu’. His father was from the leaders of Banu Salamah.
Mu’adth raced forward and jumped up with his sword but couldn’t get to Abu Jahal cleanly. His sword came down smashing on Abu Jahal’s left leg and took it clean off.
Ikrimah, son of Abu Jahal, defended his father by cutting off Mu’adth’s arm. Mu’adth lived with one arm for the rest of his life and lived during the khilaafah of ‘Uthmaan (ra).
The second youngster, Muawwidh ibn Afra, had a very pious mother. He also struck Abu Jahal, who is now dying. Both youngsters rushed back to the Prophet (saw) each saying that they killed Abu Jahal. The Prophet (saw) said that you both killed him. Muawwidh died so Mu’adth got Abu Jahal’s armour.
After the battle, the Prophet (saw) asked for the body of Abu Jahal to be found. Ibn Mas’ud (ra) was of a Yemeni ancestry. Some say that he was the sixth revert to Islam. He found Abu Jahal and placed his foot on his chest. Abu Jahal was taking his last breaths. Ibn Mas’ud (ra) said, do you admit that Allah has disgraced you? Abu Jahal said, while dying, how have I been disgraced? He asked for the result of the battle and Ibn Mas’ud (ra) said, Allah and His Messenger have won.
Abu Jahal noticed Ibn Mas’ud’s (ra) foot on his chest and said, you have stepped on a high place, oh son of a shepherd.
- This shows that Abu Jahal still had a lot of arrogance, even on his deathbed. Ibn Mas’ud (ra) wanted to finish him off quickly, but his own sword was blunt and so he took Abu Jahal’s own sword and killed him with it.
The Prophet (saw) said that Abu Jahal is the Phir’oan of this Ummah.
Shaytaan on the battlefield
Shaytaan was on the battlefield with the Quraysh. Some Ulema mention that he was in the form of a human being whose name was Suraakah. He said to the Quraysh, I am close to you and supporting you on the battlefield. This happened when the Quraysh were unsure if they should go to war or not. Shaytaan was encouraging them to go to battle. When Shaytaan saw Jibreel (as) come to the battlefield, he turned his back and ran away.
At this moment Harith ibn Hishaam said to Suraakah (Shaytaan), where are you going? Narrations mention that Shaytaan pushed Harith and he went flying upwards. Shaytaan said, I see something that which you don’t see, and he went.
In the Muwatta of Imam Maalik (rh), Shaytaan wasn’t more humiliated than on the day of Badr.
Zakaah al-Fitr was obligated in it
following Badr by ten nights.
The reason why many commands now came down in succession was because the Sahaabah were firm in their religion and taking on more would be easy.
- The firmer you are in your religion the closer you will get to Allah.
Imagine how clean the hearts of the Sahaabah were that they would give everything from themselves.
The Sheikh of Bin Baaz (rh) would wash, clean and wear the same clothes. His wife said that he would only sleep four hours a night.
Line 53 & 54
There is difference regarding Zakaah al-Maal – you must realize this.
The daughter of the righteous Prophet passed away,
Ruqayyah, prior to the army’s return;
she was the wife of ‘Uthmaan. The marriage of the chaste
Zakaatul Fitr is different to Zakaatul Maal.
The Prophet’s (saw) daughter, Ruqayyah (ra), died whilst they were in the battle of Badr. The Prophet (saw) gave ‘Uthmaan (ra) permission to stay behind. He was also given some of the war booty as he had a legitimate reason for not taking part in the battle of Badr.
All throughout life a person will be tested by Allah. If you are a sinner, then Allah is expiating your sins. If you are a righteous person, then Allah is raising your rank.
It’s very important that when a person is tested, they are patient from the first strike. As soon as the trial hits, you are patient straight away.
- Patience will take you to a place in Jannah where even prayer and fasting will not get you. This was said on the Prophet (saw) and the Sahaabah.
Ibn Taymiyyah (rh): Never ask to be tested, as you don’t know if you will stay firm.
- If you are not tested, then some of the righteous of the past would say that there is a concern here.
Faatimah to the esteemed ‘Alee.
And al-‘Abbaas accepted Islaam after being taken captive.
Al-‘Abbaas fought against the Muslims.
And as for Qaynuqaa‘, battle with them ensued afterwards.
And he sacrificed on the ‘Eed of slaughter.
The Prophet (saw) made peace with three Jewish tribes; the main one being Banu Qaynuqaa’. However, they broke the treaty so he (saw) laid siege to them and they gave up; this lasted for 15 days.
The Prophet (saw) wanted to deal with the captured fighters but the Head of the Munafiqoon, Abdullah ibn Ubay, interceded on their behalf and so they were banished instead.
One month later the Prophet (saw) did the khutbah for ‘Eid and slaughtered two sheep with his own hands.
And the battle of as-Saweeq, then Qarqarah.
And combat in the third year spread further
After losing the battle, Abu Sufiyan, the leader of the Quraysh in Mecca, vowed not to wash his hands again as a sign of revenge. He gathered 200 fighters, went to Najd and stayed with the Jews there. They burned some date trees and livestock of the Muslims and killed an Ansaari man.
After hearing this, the Prophet (saw) came with his men and Abu Sufiyan and his group ran away while dropping their goods to run faster.
is like a sweet dish.
to Ghatafaan and Banee Sulaym.
Umm Kulthoom, daughter of the noble esteemed,
The Prophet (saw) would sometimes send out a caravan to scout if the enemy was there.
was married to ‘Uthmaan and he earned this distinction.
And the Prophet later married Hafsah,
The Prophet (saw) married his daughter, Umm Kulthoom, after the third year of Hijra to ‘Uthmaan (ra). He was the only man in history to have married two daughters of the Prophet (saw).
At this time, the Prophet (saw) married Hafsah (ra).
‘Umar (ra) wanted someone to marry his daughter, so he went to Abu Bakr (ra) thinking that he wouldn’t refuse to marry a pious woman. However, when ‘Umar (ra) spoke to him, Abu Bakr (ra) didn’t respond. ‘Umar (ra) was heartbroken.
Then he went to ‘Uthmaan (ra), whose wife, Ruqayyah (ra), died. ‘Umar (ra) offered his daughter to him. ‘Uthmaan (ra) also didn’t respond. ‘Umar (ra) now became angry because he had gone to his close friends to marry his daughter.
So, he (ra) went and told the Prophet (saw) and the Prophet (saw) smiled and said, Hafsah (ra) will marry someone who is better than him and so he (saw) eventually married Hafsah (ra).
When Abu Bakr (ra) found out about this he found ‘Umar (ra) and congratulated him and apologised. Abu Bakr (ra) said, I knew the Prophet (saw) wanted to marry Hafsah and I couldn’t disclose it because it was the Prophet’s (saw) secret.
- The importance of an . If you’re told to keep something private, then you do so. Not doing so is a sin, a sign of a hypocrite and it can cause evil eye. They don’t have to have told you that it’s a secret. This should always be the default position; not telling people your conversations.
- Be careful who you confide in. If you tell someone a secret and later they become angry with you, they may disclose your secrets to others.
- Related to the Prophet (saw) marrying Hafsah (ra); you don’t know where the decree of good will be for you. Two of the most pious men on earth rejected ‘Umar (ra).
and Zaynab also; then headed to Uhud for battle
– in the month of Shawwaal – and Hamraa’ al-Asad.
The Prophet (saw) married Zaynab (ra) and she died a few months later.
She was known as Umm Masakeen; famous for giving charity.
The Battle of Uhud
The battle of Uhud took place in the same year of Zaynab’s (ra) death. After being humiliated at Badr, the Quraysh prepared to fight again to take revenge. They assembled an army of 3000 soldiers, 300 camels, 200 horses and 700 coats of mail (armour). The wives and daughters of those who were slain at Badr came to Uhud for support.
From the wisdom of this battle, the Ulema differ if this battle was a draw or a defeat.
- It shows that Muslims will not always be victorious.
- It shows the problems that arise when not following the Sunnah. The Prophet (saw) told them to stay in their position. They didn’t listen and were subsequently overtaken.
The Prophet (saw) said, we love ‘Uhud and ‘Uhud loves us.
There were initially 3000 Muslims and it dwindled to 1000 due to many hypocrites leaving.
Hind (ra), the daughter of Utbah (ra), was the leader of the women’s section and her husband, Abu Sufyan (ra), was commander of the Meccan army.
On the left flank was Iqrimah (ra) and on the right side was Khaalid bin Waleed (ra).
Amr bin ‘Aas (ra) was the commander of the cavalry.
- Had an army of 700.
- Zubayr al Awam (ra) was commander on the right.
- Munzil bin Amr (ra) was commander on the left.
- Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib (ra) was in charge of one of the guards; the Prophet’s (saw) uncle.
- Musa ibn Umar (ra) was holding the flag.
- Abu Dujaana (ra) was given the Prophet’s (saw) sword.
The Prophet (saw) put 50 archers under the charge of Abdullah ibn Zubayr (ra) at the mountainside. He (saw) told them to stay there no matter what happens, and their job was to attack the enemy if they attacked the Muslims from the rear.
When the battle commenced, the Muslims wiped out 11 bearers of flags from the Quraysh until there was only one left to hold their flag.
- Abu Dujaana (ra) and Hamza (ra) are known to be extremely brave in this particular battle.
Hamza (ra) was killed in this battle by Jubayr ibn Mut’im’s Abyssinian slave. Due to this killing of Hamza (ra), the slave earned his freedom.
At this stage the Muslims were winning, and the Quraysh were almost defeated. However, the archers were hasty, and they deserted their stations because they thought the battle was over. 40 out of the 50 archers left their post and came down from the mountainside.
Khalid bin Waleed (ra) saw this weakness and attacked furiously. The Muslims became panic stricken and disorganised. By this time, the Quraysh had gotten close to the Prophet (saw). Different narrations mention different events. Some say the Prophet (saw) was hit by a rock, his lower lip was cut, and his helmet was damaged.
Some narrations say that the Quraysh caught the bone under the Prophet’s eye when going to attack him (saw) and two rings of his helmet pierced his face.
“The blood began to run down his face and he began to wipe it away, while saying, “How can a people prosper when they have stained their Prophet’s face with blood while he called them to their Lord?”
Musa ibn Umayr (ra) was near the Muslims and was killed. As he (ra) looked like the Prophet (saw), Abdul ibn Kamah thought that he had killed the Prophet (saw) and so he shouted and made it known that he had killed Muhammad (saw). Due to his shouting, this news travelled around the battlefield. The Muslims thought that the Prophet (saw) had died and some Muslims gave up. Others became braver and said, let us die for what the Prophet (saw) gave his life for.
Ka’ab ibn Maalik (ra) saw the Prophet (saw) alive. He shouted out, Oh Muslims, rejoice, the Prophet (saw) is still alive. This galvanised the Muslims. After this, 30 of the Sahaabah rushed around the Prophet (saw) and the Muslims began to retreat.
- By retreating the Prophet (saw) saved the Muslims from further losses.
- We learn that not following the Prophet (saw) will lead to catastrophes in our life and loss in this dunya and our Akhirah.
- We learn to not have an all or nothing mentality as our Prophet (saw) didn’t have this mentality. The Prophet (saw) retreated and knew that this was better. There will be days when you can’t always do good, but you keep trying every single day. Renew your intention. Every day is a new day.
The Prophet (saw) wasn’t always victorious. Some Ulema follow the view that the Prophet (saw) didn’t kill anyone from the Mushrikoon and that he (saw) only killed Ubay ibn Khalaf.
- Ibn Qayyim (rh): Ubay ibn Khalaf came with the intention of killing the Prophet (saw). The Prophet (saw) took a spear and killed him instead, hitting him in the collar bone.
In one narration, a Sahaabi asked about the injuries of the Prophet (saw). It was said that the Prophet’s (saw) face was injured, his front teeth were damaged and his helmet was crushed.
- Faatimah (ra) was washing the blood from his (saw) head and Ali (ra) was pouring water over it.
Hudayfah bin Yamaan’s (ra) father was killed by accident on this day by one of the Believers, but he forgave the killer.
On this day, Hanzalah al Ghaseer (ra), who was newly married, left his wife’s bed for battle and was martyred. When they checked his body, it had water dripping off it. The Prophet (saw) said that this is the Angels washing his body. When his wife was asked, she said that he was in major impurity.
Narration of Anas (ra): His uncle was absent from the battle of Badr. He said, oh Messenger of Allah, if Allah gives me a second chance in the battle of Uhud, I will show Allah how brave I am.
In the battle of Uhud, when the Muslims were fleeing, he said, oh Allah, I apologise for what they are doing, and I denounce it. Then, later he met Sa’d ibn Mu’adh (ra) and he said, by the Lord of al-Nathar, I can smell Jannah and its aroma is coming from Uhud.
Later on, Sa’d said, I can’t achieve what he achieved, and they found him dead. He had more than 80 wounds on his body and was so badly wounded that no one could recognise him, except his sister through his fingers.
Amar ibn Thaabit (ra) accepted Islam just before the battle and he died during the battle. The Prophet (saw) said, he is of the people of Paradise. Abu Huraira (ra) commented on this and said that he didn’t even offer a single prayer.
Intoxicants were prohibited undoubtedly – so listen –
and that year his grandson, al-Hasan, was born.
Alcohol was made haraam in the 3rd or 4th year after Hijra.
- This shows that changes need to be done slowly and organically.
When alcohol was made haraam, it was poured into the streets.
- Once your belief in Jannah and Jahannam is firm in your heart, then the doors can open for everything else.
Some say that Hassan (ra), the son of Ali ibn Abi Taalib (ra) and the grandson of the Prophet (saw), was born in the 4th year after Hijra.
He was the leader of the Muslims and reconciled between them, as the Prophet (saw) prophesied, by stepping down as leader so Mu’awiyah (ra) could take the position.
- The Prophet (saw) called his grandson a Sayyid.
- You will very rarely hear a Shi’a talk about Hassan.
In the fourth year, battle reached
Banee an-Nadeer in Rabee‘ al-Awwal.
In the 4th year after Hijra the Muslims went to the tribe of Bani Nadeer because the Jews killed two Muslims. The Jews were not allowed to kill a Muslim and so ‘Umar (ra) told them that they needed to pay blood money.
Behind the Prophet (saw) was a man with a stone, with the intention of hurting him (saw). Jibreel (as) warned the Prophet (saw) and for the next six days, the Muslims laid siege to the Jews. After this, the Muslims let them go, with a camel’s worth of goods, and took the war booty.
Then followed the death of Zaynab, the aforementioned,
and afterwards, marriage to Umm Salamah,
The Story of Umm Salamah (ra)
During her marriage to Abu Salama, Umm Salama (in a story related by Ziyad ibn Abi Maryam) is said to have asked her husband to make agreement that when either of them died, the other would not remarry. However, in this tradition, Abu Salama responded by instructing Umm Salama to remarry after his death. He then prayed, “O Allah, provide Umm Salama after me with a better man than me who will not grieve her or injure her!”
During the Battle of Uhud (March 625), Abu Salama was severely injured. While Abu Salama was dying due to these wounds, he recalled a story to Umm Salama involving a message he had heard from Muhammad: “I heard the Messenger of God saying, ‘Whenever a calamity afflicts anyone he should say, “Surely from God we are and to Him we shall certainly return.”‘ And he would pray, ‘O Lord, give me in return something better from it which only You, Exalted and Mighty can give'”.
Her husband eventually died from the wounds he received in the Battle of Uhud. Umm Salama (ra) remembered the Hadith recalled by her husband prior to his death, and began reciting the given prayer.
Following her husband’s death in the battle of Uhud, she became known as Ayyin al-Arab – “the one who had lost her husband”. She had no family in Medina except her small children, but she was given support by both the Muhajirun and Ansar.
After finishing her iddah period, Umm Salama (ra) got offers of marriage. Abu Bakr (ra) and then ‘Umar (ra) asked to marry her, but she declined. Muhammad (saw) himself then proposed to Umm Salama (ra). She initially hesitated in her acceptance, stating, “O Messenger of Allah, I have three characteristics. I am a woman who is extremely jealous and I am afraid that you will see in me something that will anger you and cause Allah to punish me. I am a woman who is already advanced in age and I am a woman who has a young family.”
However, Muhammad (saw) appeased each of her concerns, “Regarding the jealousy you mentioned, I pray to Allah the Almighty to let it go away from you. Regarding the question of age you have mentioned, I am afflicted with the same problem as you. Regarding the dependent family you have mentioned, your family is my family.”
In the Sahih of Imam Muslim, Umm Salamah (ra) said that she heard the Prophet (saw) say that no one has a calamity but they say:
We are from Allah and unto Him we return. O Allah take me out of my plight and bring to me after it something better.
- No one says this except that Allah will compensate him with something better.
When Abu Salamah died Umm Salamah said, who amongst you is better than Abu Salamah? Who was the first household to migrate? She said that Allah’s Messenger (saw) proposed to her.
Ibn Qayyim (rh) mentions in Zaad al Maad:
- If a person thinks about what has happened to them, they will find that Allah has given him something similar or better than it. If he is patient, then Allah will give him something better than it.
- The fire of the calamity can be extinguished by looking at those who have it harder than you. As Ibn Sireen (rh) said, there is never laughter but that after it comes weeping.
Panicking doesn’t make the calamity go away. It makes Allah angry, Shaytaan happy, destroys the rewards and weakens the resolve.
- What comes from patience is a joy greater than what he lost. He mentions a Hadith in Tirmidhi saying that on Yawm al Qiyamah, people will wish that their skins had been cut with scissors in this world when they see the reward of those who had been struck with calamity and had patience.
- If a righteous person moves from one calamity to another, then this is a good sign.
- Allah is testing him, not to cause him pain but rather He is checking on him so that He may hear his du’a, so that He may see him standing before Him with humility and complaining only to Him.
- This is why some of the people of the past would say that Allah wouldn’t respond to the du’a and would tell the Angels not to respond to the du’a because He loves hearing this person’s voice begging and crying.
- Trials and tribulations remove arrogance and self-admiration from a person.
- This world is full of bitterness and complete sweetness will be found in the Hereafter. This is clear from the Hadith reported from Anas ibn Maalik (ra) and Abu Hurairah (ra) that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said:
“Jannah is surrounded by hardships and the Hell-Fire is surrounded by desires.”
and the daughter of Jahsh. Then, to Badr as appointed
followed by al-Ahzaab – so listen and keep count –
The Prophet (saw) married Zaynab bint Jahsh (ra) in the 3rd, 4th and some say 5th year after Hijra.
There were three battles that took place at Badr:
- A skirmish.
- The main battle of Badr. Abu Sufiyan returned home so no battle took place.
- The third battle of Badr.
Then the Battle of Ahzaab took place at this time. The enemies gathered against the Muslims in the month of Shawaal.
- 10,000 of the enemy
- 3000 Muslims.
Some of the Jews joined the enemy (Abu Sufiyan and the tribe of At-Qatyaan) thus breaking the covenant which they had with the Muslims. This was also known as the Battle of the Khandak (Battle of the Trenches). During this battle it was known to be very hot.
Allah tested the Muslims with this difficult battle, which occurred in the month of Shawwal. The Jews went to support the enemy and wanted to finish the Muslims off. They broke all their pacts with the Muslims. Allah sent wind down to them and struck fear in their hearts.
- The Prophet (saw) helped with the digging of the trenches.
- No matter how high your status is, you should get involved in helping people.
- The importance of being open to new ideas. Salmaan al-Faarisi (ra) mentioned the idea of building the trenches. The Prophet (saw) took this idea and implemented it.
- A person should take advice where necessary. This is the greatest man (saw) taking advice from someone else.
There’s a khilaaf in the dates of al-Ahzaab.
then Banee Quraythah, though regarding these two
there is difference. And at Thaat ar-Riqaa‘ he taught
how to pray Salaah al-Khawf; and prayer was shortened, as reported.
and the verses about hijaab and tayammum.
In the 4th year after Hijra, the Prophet (saw) was taught salaatul Khawf. This salaah, for example, is prayed when someone is defending Islam.
We learn the importance of salaah. Even if someone is in a difficult situation, the salaah must still be performed.
- Even if a person is fleeing from something and the time for salaah is ending, they still have to pray it. This was prescribed especially in times of war.
The Prophet (saw) was also taught how to shorten the salaah. This was all whilst he (saw) was travelling.
Salaatul Khawf: Due to the Prophet (saw) being busy on the day of Khandak, he (saw) missed salaatul Asr. So, due to this he (saw) was taught salaatul Khawf.
The salaah being shortened shows the importance of the salaah and this was for the four rak’ah salaah.
In the 4th year after Hijra, the obligation of hijaab was revealed. This shows the gradualness of the deen.
Tayyammum was also legislated at this time.
- The reason for tayyammum being legislated was because A’isha’s (ra) necklace went missing. They went back to look for the necklace and during this time, they ran out of water. Then, Allah sent Verses down about tayyammum.