Tafseer of Surah Faatihah [STRUCTURED LESSON]

Information About The Qur’an

Some Names of the Qur’an:

  • Al-Kitaab: The Book
  • Al-Furqan: The criterion between right and wrong
  • As-Dhikr: Remembrance
  • At-Tanzeel: That which is sent down

Descriptions of Qur’an:

  • Al-Mubaarak: The blessed
  • Al-Hakeem: Wise and full of wisdom
  • Al-Majeed
  • Al-Kareem: Bountiful

Two Types of Verses:

  1. Sababi: Revelation with a reason. Something happened and a Verse was revealed:
  • To answer questions
  • An incident took place
  • Something happened which required a ruling
  1. Ibtidaa’i: Nothing happened for the Verse to be revealed.
  • Most Verses fall into this category.

Why Was the Qur’an Revealed Over 23 Years?

  1. To make the Prophet (saw) steadfast
  2. To make it easy to memorise
  • Abdul Rahman Sulumee (rh) said that the Sahaabah would memorise 10 Verses of the Qur’an, contemplate them and then act upon them.
  1. To make things easier to implement
  • Alcohol was forbidden in three stages. It wasn’t made haraam straight away.
  • Visiting graves. Initially the Prophet (saw) wasn’t allowed. Then later when they understood the rulings they were allowed to visit graves to remember death.

As for the order of the words of the Qur’an, they are tawqeefi, meaning they are based on evidence and are not random. There is no ijtihaad in this. This is how it was dictated to the Prophet (saw).

  • The names of Allah are also tawqeefi
  • Changing the order of the words is haraam
  • The names of Surahs are also tawqeefi, according to the majority of scholars, but not all of them. Imam Tabari (rh) said that they are tawqeefi
  • As for the 30 chapters of the Qur’an, they say this was introduced by Hajaj ibn Yusuf. He was a tyrant and would fight the Sahaabah.

 

Two Types of Surahs; Maki and Madani

  • Makkan Surahs were revealed before
  • Madani Surahs were revealed after For example, Surah Ma’ida was revealed in Arafat after Hijra.

Maki Surahs: Shorter and very powerful. They mention a lot about Tawheed and the Hereafter.

Madani Surahs: Much longer. Contain rulings on acts of worship and laws; Surah Baqarah.