Tafseer of Surah Faatihah [STRUCTURED LESSON]

Information About The Qur’an

Some Names of the Qur’an:

  • Al-Kitaab: The Book
  • Al-Furqan: The criterion between right and wrong
  • As-Dhikr: Remembrance
  • At-Tanzeel: That which is sent down

Descriptions of Qur’an:

  • Al-Mubaarak: The blessed
  • Al-Hakeem: Wise and full of wisdom
  • Al-Majeed
  • Al-Kareem: Bountiful

Two Types of Verses:

  1. Sababi: Revelation with a reason. Something happened and a Verse was revealed:
  • To answer questions
  • An incident took place
  • Something happened which required a ruling
  1. Ibtidaa’i: Nothing happened for the Verse to be revealed.
  • Most Verses fall into this category.

Why Was the Qur’an Revealed Over 23 Years?

  1. To make the Prophet (saw) steadfast
  2. To make it easy to memorise
  • Abdul Rahman Sulumee (rh) said that the Sahaabah would memorise 10 Verses of the Qur’an, contemplate them and then act upon them.
  1. To make things easier to implement
  • Alcohol was forbidden in three stages. It wasn’t made haraam straight away.
  • Visiting graves. Initially the Prophet (saw) wasn’t allowed. Then later when they understood the rulings they were allowed to visit graves to remember death.

As for the order of the words of the Qur’an, they are tawqeefi, meaning they are based on evidence and are not random. There is no ijtihaad in this. This is how it was dictated to the Prophet (saw).

  • The names of Allah are also tawqeefi
  • Changing the order of the words is haraam
  • The names of Surahs are also tawqeefi, according to the majority of scholars, but not all of them. Imam Tabari (rh) said that they are tawqeefi
  • As for the 30 chapters of the Qur’an, they say this was introduced by Hajaj ibn Yusuf. He was a tyrant and would fight the Sahaabah.

Two Types of Surahs; Maki and Madani

  • Makkan Surahs were revealed before
  • Madani Surahs were revealed after For example, Surah Ma’ida was revealed in Arafat after Hijra.

Maki Surahs: Shorter and very powerful. They mention a lot about Tawheed and the Hereafter.

Madani Surahs: Much longer. Contain rulings on acts of worship and laws; Surah Baqarah.

Some Rulings Concerning the Mus-haf (General Etiquettes with the Qur’an):

  • Leaving the Qur’an open and returning to it is fine. It is better to close it.
  • It is good to put the Qur’an in a high place. This is honour for the Qur’an.
  • It is permissible to put the Qur’an in a lower place.
  • Some scholars say it is permissible to put the Qur’an on the floor but we say that out of honour it’s better to leave on a high place.
  • Always maintain respect for the Qur’an.
  • If any impurities get on the Qur’an, you remove the impurity and perfume it.
  • If the smell of najaasah remains on the Qur’an after cleaning and perfuming it, some scholars say you can bury it or burn it.
  • If you don’t have wudu you can still recite the Qur’an, according to an ijmah of the Sahaabah. However, holding the mus-haf requires wudu according to the majority of scholars.

Ibn Taymiyyah (rh): Ijmah of the Sahaabah that wudu is needed to hold and touch the Qur’an.

  • A person can put a cover over it and recite it.
  • If a person is sexually impure (hadath akbar) it is haraam for him to touch it. Majority of scholars say he is not even allowed to recite the Qur’an. This is the correct view and Allah knows best. Later scholars have said that he can recite the Qur’an.
  • If the Qur’an is on your phone, then you don’t need wudu. You can enter the bathroom with a phone that has the Qur’an on it. The ulema made qiyaas (analogy) to a haafidth.
  • A copy of the Qur’an can be taken into the bathroom if you think someone may steal it.
  • You are allowed to hold the mus-haf in your left hand but the right hand is better.
  • Menstruating women can recite the Qur’an but can’t touch it unless they wear gloves.

Collection of the Qur’an

 The Qur’an was Gathered in Three Stages:

  1. During the life time of the Prophet (saw) the Companions had memorised it; the 4 caliphs: Abu Bakr (ra), ‘Umar (ra), ‘Uthman (ra), and ‘Ali (ra). They wrote it down on bits of leather, skin, tree etc.

The Prophet (saw) would say in Sahih Muslim as mentioned by Khudri:

Do not write from me except the Qur’an.

The scholars say he (saw) was worried that they would mix it up between his (saw) speech. This changed after he (saw) died.